Lee, adored by the general American South, in his own country has a status of "man-god", although many modern historians consider him the figure of a paradoxical and contradictory.
. Robert Edward
Lee was born January 19, 1807 in Stratford, Va., the son of Revolutionary War hero Henry "The cavalryman Harry" Lee and Ann Hill Carter Lee
. Henry Lee - Father Robert
. Mother, . father belonged to a respectable old Virgin Birth, . but, . the circumstances (his father was caught in the failed financial transactions), . Robert
education, . fourth child in the house, . dealt mainly mother, . taught him the basis of strict discipline, . patience and piety,
. In Stratford is healthy and strong little boy had only four first years of his life, but in many ways it is they who determined the fate of the future general.
. It sometimes happens that one of the children will inherit all the best from previous generations, this is what happened with Robert
. From his mother he got an attractive appearance, from his father - physical strength and sense of duty and responsibility, which Henry Lee said in the Revolution itself, George Washington. Even his father's financial problems have played a positive role - his life, Robert
E. Lee has been extremely scrupulous and careful in everything that comes to money and business.
. Ann Carter Lee gave his son the importance of awareness of the prevalence of family values, and a touching love to the mother Robert
carried through the years
The family of Lee Streforde
In 12 years, in the absence of his father and brothers, he became the actual owner of the big house, carefully tending to his mother and sisters, which have been in poor health.
Lee military career was due to financial need. In studies at Harvard, where he studied his older brother, Charles Carter, who simply had no money. There remained one way - in a military academy West Point. As a cadet for four years, Lee has not received any punishment, enjoyed the sympathy and respect for fellow students and graduated from the Academy's second performance in its class. Mutual love of the Cadets at West Point and Lee again manifested itself years later, when Lee returned to the academy as superintendent.
Best graduates receive an appointment in the engineering corps, this rule applies and Robert
E. Lee. Among his first steps on the practical military career - the construction of a dam in St. Louis and the strengthening of coastal forts in Brunswick and Savannah.
Lee House is a family in Arlington
The rank of the 2 nd Corps of Engineers, Lieutenant Lee married Mary Ann Randolph Kastis from Arlington; wedding took place June 30, 1831 in Fort Monroe. Mary was the only daughter of George Washington Park Kastisa, adoptive grandson of George Washington. Robert
Lee piously revered the memory of Washington and admiration for his service to the country, family ties with the family the father of the American Revolution began to be another source of patriotic inspiration
. Young couple moved to Arlington, the estate Kastisov in the Potomac River in Washington, DC (now on the estate is Arlington).
. In 1846 the outbreak of the Mexican-American War, and Robert
was sent to Mexico to oversee the construction of roads
. However, General Winfield Scott, commander of U.S. forces, said not primarily the engineering skills of Lee and his cavalry bearing and exceptional ability to scout, and brought him to the composition of its staff. It was in Mexico, Robert
E. Lee, in practice, met with the tactics, and these lessons have been successfully used them 16 years later.
Young officer, Robert
The ability of officers were tasked with drawing up and adjusting the cards, which, however, has not stopped him one day to lead soldiers in melee. It was in Mexico, Lee met with people who play such an important role in the impending Civil War - James Longstreet, Thomas Jackson, George Pickett and Ulysses S. Grant.
. Despite the impeccable service and demonstrated during the war heroism and bravery, career growth to occur extremely slowly
. He received the appointment to the most remote and wild places, painfully conscious of separation from home and family. He repeatedly emphasized that the main thing in his life - the love of his wife and children.
. In 1855, Lee with the future Confederate President Jefferson Davis was transferred to the cavalry loudest military operation, . which he presided during this period, . - Suppression of the rebellion of radical abolitionist John Brown, . which in October 1859 made a desperate attempt to seize the government arsenal at Harpers Ferry,
. Marines under the command of Colonel Lee quickly broke the resistance of Brown and a handful of terrorists. Lee was a young aide Lt. Jeb Stuart, who later became the best cavalry of the South.
Lee's finest hour, which gave the Army U.S. 32 years of his life came in 1861, and in such circumstances, who could not dream about him and in a terrible dream. The election of President Lincoln led to the secession from the Union of South Carolina, followed by other southern states. Before the war, President Lincoln, through his Secretary Francis Blair, offered Lee command of all ground forces of the federal. Reasons for a positive response were - Lee is a supporter of the union device, did not approve of secession (separation), considered slavery an evil and freed all his slaves. Lee wrote: "Neither the north nor south, neither east nor west - only a broad Union in all its might and strength". Blair has put Lee forced to choose between preserving the unity of the country and love for his family, friends, history, and the home state of Virginia.
Jefferson Davis - President of the Confederate States of America (1861-1865)
His heart was broken, but the right decision after a sleepless night in Arlington was still accepted - Lee wrote in his resignation. He could not fight with their families. In response, Mr Blair had written: "Despite the rejection of secession and the impending war, I am not able to take part in the invasion of the southern states". Lee received his resignation and left his beloved Arlington to "a sad return to his people and share the fate of the native state". He wrote to his son: "I think their actions offended the North South. I feel the aggression and desire to do everything to prevent it. This is a principle which I advocate is not due to private or individual benefits. As an American citizen, I pray for their country and its prosperity, but is ready to defend any of its staff, whose rights are threatened.
. Soon, Lee offered his services to the newly elected president of the Confederate States of America, Jefferson Davis, who made his first in the brigade, and then complete the generals
. At the first stage of the war. Lee organizes regular army units in his home state, but in the summer of 1861 led Confederate troops in West Virginia.
. Joe Johnston - Lee collaborator on Confederate
. After little success manual operation in the Cheat Mountain (which was caused by external factors and above all the problems in the supply of food and ammunition) Robert
E. Lee was recalled to the capital of the Confederacy Richmond, . where he took the post of chief military adviser to President Davis,
. While in this position, Lee has a significant influence on the course of hostilities, in particular, it is great merit in the planning of a remarkable campaign of the stone wall Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley.
. While command of Eastern Army was divided between the Confederation of Beauregard, the hero of Fort Sumter, and Joe Johnston, jointly won the Yankees in the first major battle of Bull Run
. Then became the sole commander of Johnston, which, however, hampered by numerous injuries. Therefore, when federal troops led by George MakKlellanom launched an offensive against Richmond. Davis replaced Johnston Lee. Confederate troops moved to the offensive and forced the superior in numbers and armament of the northerners to retreat in the so-called "Seven Days Campaign. Thus began the glorious history of the Army of Northern Virginia, led by General Robert
E. Lee, whom southerners were affectionately known as "Uncle Robert
". Joe Johnston knew there still a West Point and wrote about him: "He (Robert
Lee) was full of sympathy and kindness.
Joseph Hooker - General of the North, defeated the troops of Li
He loved to talk and laugh. But at the same time, the correctness of his manners, devotion to duty - both personal and social, natural nobility and elegance gave him an advantage that in their hearts recognize each ".
Army of Northern Virginia moved to Washington, routed John Pope in the second battle of Bull Run. Capitalizing on success, in September 1862, the troops crossed the Potomac Lee invaded Maryland and faced MakKlellanom at South Mountain. For fatal accidents operational documents Lee fell into the hands of the enemy, and after a bloody battle at Entietama Southerners retreated, remaining undefeated. In December the same year, Lee brilliantly repulsed another attack federal troops under the command of Burnside, defeating them at the Fredericksburg.
The greatest victory of his General Lee won the battle of Chansellorsville in May 1863, when the Union moved to a huge Confederate army under the command of Joe Hooker.
E. Lee along with his colleague Stone Wall Jackson
. Lee and other military genius of the South Stonewall Jackson divided their forces, bypassed a forced march Hooker and struck his unprotected flank, causing the Northerners most noticeable during the war defeat.
. This victory prompted Lee and Davis to make a so-called
. "second invasion of the North". Southerners hoped to finally destroy the military forces of the federal, putting thus an end to war. In the future, a victory march on Washington and send a petition for recognition of the Confederate States of America Lincoln. With these, as it turned out, fruitless hope Army of Northern Virginia, again crossed the Potomac and entered the territory of Pennsylvania. From 1 st to 3rd July 1863 from an unknown town of Gettysburg took place the greatest battle in the history of the Western Hemisphere. Calling General Lee left the Federal Army of the Potomac to its new commander General George Meade. On the third day it became clear that the Confederates are defeated, and even undertaken the broad frontal attack, known as "throw Pickett, did not change the final result.
The defeat of the Confederate Army at Gettysburg
Confederates were defeated.
Nevertheless, the Army of Northern Virginia fought two long years. Shaken by the defeat at Gettysburg, Lee led a rather unconvincing campaign by Bristow and Mayne Ran. Wu Li appeared a worthy opponent - Ulysses S. Grant, and it was with him and only him, General fought until the end of the war. Grant valued his interlocutor, giving it the name "ace of spades" as the highest mark of military valor, and talent. Encircled by enemies Pitersberga and Richmond, Lee stubbornly resisted for ten months until he retreated to Appomattoksu. There and held surrender the Army of Northern Virginia, April 9, 1865.
. From the first in June 1862, after taking over command of the Army of Northern Virginia, Robert Edward
Lee was and soul, and the de facto leader of the armed forces of the Confederacy, which he formally headed until January 1865
. His talent commander became a legend, and his military campaign is still studied in all military academies in the world as a model for the tactical art. Lee was able to resist the armies, three times the size of his own, poorly armed, naked and hungry. This is due to the Southern soldiers and civilians who felt themselves victims of aggression by the Yankees and chest rose to defend their freedom and independence, all that was dear to them. But this certainly is present and the merit of General Lee, his clear intelligence and courage.
After the surrender of Lee returned to Richmond as a prisoner of war pardoned. The rest of his life he devoted to alleviate the plight of former soldiers of the Confederacy. Robert
E. Lee - President of Washington College
He refused many tempting offers and accepted a modest presidency of Washington College (now - University of Washington and Lee). Reputation general breathed new life in college, and his vast military experience and fame in both the North and the South, coupled with the tragic symbolism of the "losers affairs" made out of Lee's legendary figure during his lifetime. He died Oct. 12, 1870 in Lexington as a result of a heart attack, and without waiting for the restoration of civil rights, which was followed by only a hundred years later, thanks to the intervention of President Gerald Ford.
. John Williams, Jones wrote about Robert
. Lee: "He possessed all the qualities of great commanders, but without their sins. He was the enemy without hatred, without one of betrayal, a private citizen, without rancor, a neighbor without reproach, a Christian without hypocrisy. He was Caesar without his ambition, Frederick without his tyranny, Napoleon, without his self-confidence, Washington, without his confession. "
. Chronology of the life and deeds
. Literary sources