"Democracy - a government that gives or tries to give people the illusion that he is a gentleman.
. Benito Mussolini
. The will to power.
. Future great dictator was born July 29, 1883 in the village Dovia, in the province of Emilia-Romagna
. Rosa Maltoni, mother of Mussolini
, was a rural teacher. Father Benito
, Alessandro, earning blacksmith and locksmith trades. Two years after the birth of first child in the family has another son, Arnaldo, and after five years - the daughter Edwidge. Mussolini
had an average wealth and could afford to pay for school eldest son in the school of monks in Faenza. Benito
grew obstinate, stubborn, aggressive and often broke the strict rules set by the monks. Noticeable influence on the son helped the father. Atheist and rebel, is sympathetic to the ideas of M. Bakunin, Alessandro knew firsthand about Marxism and considered himself a socialist.
After completing secondary school Mussolini
taught in junior high, but not for long - in 1902 he went in search of happiness in Switzerland. Benito
had already called himself a socialist, and often performed before small audiences. His popularity among the emigrant workers grew, and the name was well known to the Swiss police, who arrested several times for his "inflammatory rhetoric". In those years, Mussolini
became acquainted with the works to. Kautsky and P. Kropotkin, P. Stirner and O. Blanks, A. Schopenhauer and F. Nietzsche, read the "manifesto" Towards. Marx and F. Engels. Mussolini
snatched from the theories is that he liked and it was clear and he easily mastered the other's ideas, and had the habit after some time to issue them as their own.
. Like many other socialists of his generation, Mussolini
was strongly influenced by the ideas of the French syndicalist Georges Sorel
Young Benito Mussolini
But most of Mussolini
was shocked by the concept of Nietzsche's superman. He realized that this "superman" can not be found somewhere on the side, and to cultivate in himself. In addition, Mussolini
was attracted by Nietzsche's understanding of the people as a "pedestal for selected natures" of the war - as the highest manifestation of the human spirit.
. "Little Chief" (piccolo Duce "), he was first named in 1907 after the expulsion of the Canton of Geneva
. Several years later the title, . but without a definition of "piccolo", . flashed in the newspaper of the revolutionary faction of the Italian Socialist La soffitta "(" Cherevik ") and has since been firmly established for Mussolini
, . who did not conceal his satisfaction on this occasion,
His ideas of Mussolini
preached at a small newspaper "Lotta di class (" Class Struggle "), which he acquired with the help of the Socialists province of Emilia-Romagna. Certainly, he was a gifted journalist. This small-format sheet, which became a daily organ of the Italian Socialist Party (ESP) in Forli, almost entirely composed of his articles. Mussolini
thundered against the monarchy and militarism, cursed the rich and the priests, socialists, reformists and Republicans. His articles were wicked and ruthless, their tone of peremptory and aggressive, dogmatic and assertive phrases. The popularity of the newspaper grew, its circulation has doubled, reaching 2500 copies, and Duce, becoming secretary of the Socialist Party in Forli, in October 1910 for the first time got to the next Congress of ICP, held in Milan.
felt that overdue in the party crisis caused by the aggravation of the struggle between supporters of the reformist and revolutionary tactics, you can use to move up
. And he plays this card at the next congress of ISP in Emilia-Romagna, in July 1912.
's political career, this Congress was of particular importance. "Irreconcilable" leaders "of the revolutionary faction among them Mussolini
managed to secure the expulsion of the right-hand reformists ISP. Mussolini
's speech at the congress was a resounding success. She commented, quoted in the press, but it could not fully satisfy the ambitions of Mussolini
. For a man, endowed with powers in excess of the publicist, the safest way to top a central obscheitalyanskaya newspaper ISP. His dream came true: in November 1912 he was appointed to lead editor of the newspaper "Avanti!" ( "Forward!"). Mussolini
knew profession reporter. He loved the newspaper and was a virtuoso of journalistic. One and a half years the circulation of newspapers increased from 20 to 100 000 copies, it became one of the most popular in Italy.
. And then World War II broke out, and the Socialist Party, faithful to its long anti-militarist tradition, appealed to the masses with the anti-war manifesto and put forward the slogan of "absolute neutrality"
. However, as the conflict in the tone of the publications "Avanti!" acquired pronounced antigermansky and antiavstriysky character, and proantantovskie sympathy Mussolini
became "open secret". October 18, 1914 in "Avanti!" published an editorial article "On the neutrality of the absolute neutrality to active and valid", . and although this formula is incompatible with the anti-war rate of Socialists, . Mussolini
tried to impose its party leadership,
. He demanded of the party referendum on the issue. After long and bitter debate at a meeting of leadership ESP resolution Mussolini
was dismissed, he dismissed as chief editor, and a month later with the noise removed from the party.
led a winning game, as the spring of 1914 received an offer from F
. Naldi, publisher of one newspaper Bolognese. We Naldi had connections with the royal court, he had friends among the big industrialists and financiers. Duce could not resist the temptation to have their own more newspapers, which would be in its hands a powerful political weapon, enabling them to continue the struggle for power. The first issue of "horrible d'Italia" ( "The people of Italy") was published on November 15. While the newspaper initially called "daily, a socialist, namely leadership ESP and the Socialist Party as a whole in its pages were angry, bitter attacks. Mussolini
advocated the immediate entry of Italy into the war on the side of the Entente. His supporters had hoped to help bring the war to make revolution, and Italy the great. The idea of "revolutionary war for a place under the sun" has found a response among broad segments of smallholders. Mussolini
became the mouthpiece is their attitude. His extremism was easily accessible understanding of the townsfolk and lumpen. "I am increasingly convinced, - he wrote - that for the good of Italy, it would be useful to shoot ... a dozen deputies and sentenced to penal servitude at least some ex-ministers ... Parliament in Italy - a plague plague, poisons the blood of the nation. It needs to be cut.
Officially, Italy entered the First World War May 23, 1915. Mussolini
did not follow the example of many nationalists and not rush to record volunteer. Newsboy accused him of cowardice, he also insisted that awaits the call of his Year. Agenda came only in late August and mid-September, he was in the army. Legend of the reckless courage of Mussolini
on the front set up by him after the war. In fact, he had done nothing outstanding. Duce wore military uniform 17 months, but only a third of that time spent in the trenches, the rest was in the rear - in hospitals, on leave. In February 1917 he became the victim of an accident: During the briefing on the use of a trench mortar exploded one minute. Four soldiers were killed outright, and Mussolini
was wounded in his right leg. Six months later he was discharged and returned to the Editor "weeded d'Italia, and another two months later, tragedy struck under Caporetto, where the Italian army was utterly defeated Austrian troops. On the roads of Northern Italy trudged home hundreds of thousands of exhausted, embittered people, until recently known as soldiers.
was able not only to understand the interests of veterans, but also to express in a simple and accessible form the innermost thoughts and aspirations of these people
. Gradually he became their idol. Mussolini
was subject to sudden outbursts of anger, vindictive and cruel, but these qualities only adds to the image of "a man of action", ready for ideas on everything. But Mussolini
soon realized that for the seizure of power needed a strong, fighting organization. March 21, he gathered in Milan, the former interventistov, nationalists, Futurists. Only about 60 people. They decided to create a "Fighting Alliance" ( "Fashio de kombattimento", and hence the name of a new movement) and to this end, to convene a kind of constituent assembly. The published in the newspaper "weeded Italia" call and a little more than a hundred people. March 23, 1919, these people settled in a mansion in Milan commercial and industrial club on Plaza San Se-polkro.
Two days there were calls to restore the greatness of Italy, were debates about foreign policy. 54 people have signed a declaration in which the Nazis - so began to call themselves members of the new organization - committed themselves to protect the requirements of ex-soldiers and sabotage neutralists. They declared themselves the enemies of anyone in particular Italian, imperialism, and immediately demanded the annexation of the disputed regions of Yugoslavia Dalmatia and Fiume. Soon, their program was complemented by an extensive list of social slogans, . sounded very radical: the abolition of the Senate, . Police, . castes, . privileges and titles, . suffrage, . guarantees of civil liberties, . Constituent Assembly, . setting for all 8-hour day and minimum wage, . transfer of land to peasants, . universal education, and more,
. Thus, the Nazis were not treated to any particular social class, but to all Italians' taste for the tangible social and political change. Mussolini
did not hide his intentions. Mussolini
With the decline of the revolutionary movement, when the immediate threat to the existing system had passed, he publicly announced his bid for the conquest of political power. "Fascism - a huge mobilization of moral and material forces - he wrote March 23, 1921. - What we dobivaemsyaN speak about this without false modesty: managing the nation ". In May 1921 Mussolini
was elected to the Italian Parliament. 35 mandates received by the Nazis, allowed them to participate in the parliamentary game, backroom combinations and transactions. Although Mussolini
called all this "rat race" and the parliamentary group of fascists - "punitive platoon, so he" e less carefully scrutinized to vnutriparlamentskoy kitchen and considering the chances of success. In November 1921, at the time of the Fascist Party, he defiantly refused the post of general secretary: he was supposed to be above the current party affairs. The gesture was typical of Mussolini
, who became a member of the party leadership, but in fact have full authority. Autumn of 1922 in Italy, established a de facto dual power: the Nazis took over all the new cities and provinces. Mussolini
made a bet on an armed coup. October 24 in Naples, Teatro San Carlo opened the next congress of the fascist unions.
made it with an aggressive speech, an ultimatum demanding the government provide fascists five ministerial portfolios and the Commissariat Aviation
. At the same time he declared his loyalty to the monarchy, because the force was aware of the monarch.
That same evening at the Hotel Vesuvio, where he stayed Duce, gathered his closest associates and kvadrumviry (I. Balbo, H. M. De Vikki, E. De Bono, M. Bianchi) - Members of the operational manual fascist troops. After a brief debate, the decision was taken: 27 October - general mobilization of the Nazis, 28 - attack on the main centers of the country. Three columns skvadristov - members of the fascist military detachments (skvadr) - were signed in Rome from Perugia, to deliver an ultimatum to the Government A. Facts and master key ministries. In case of failure of the operation intended to proclaim the establishment of fascist governments in Central Italy and to prepare a new "march on Rome."
Immediately poured blood: in Cremona, Bologna and Alessandria skvadristy have become unmanageable. Cabinet has decided to resign, but preliminarily approved and even sent out to the field decree a state of siege, under which the army received the necessary authority to restore order. But at the last moment caused by the country residence of King Victor Emmanuel III refused to sign the decree.
. New order.
. Day October 29 Mussolini
, who was in Milan, received such a welcome announcement to appoint him prime minister and later the same day on a special train, with sleeper leaves for Rome
. Dressed in a fascist form (black shirt, dark green trousers and leggings), Duce came to the King. A few years later in an interview with the German writer E. Ludwig, he admitted that the road to Rome felt like a patriot. Coming out with the King on the balcony, he greeted the crowd rejoiced Blackshirt. So ended the fascist coup, ironically named the people "revolution in the sleeper.
After becoming prime minister, Mussolini
retained the habit of many provincial populist.
King Victor Emmanuel III
Duce, becoming the head of the government and not having the slightest experience of running the country "began to produce numerous decrees and orders. Chief among them were the establishment in December 1922, the Fascist Grand Council (BFS), . consisting of personally appointed by the members of Mussolini
, . and transformation in 1923 fascist skvadr in the so-called voluntary militia to national security (DMNB), . sworn to the King, . but subordinate Duce,
sought to concentrate in its hands all power, in the first place - executive. "Democracy - a government - he argued - which gives or tries to give people the illusion that he is lord". However, their actions, the fascist government has not even an illusion: In these years, Mussolini
saw the way for an economic recovery in the winding up of government regulation and promotion of private initiative. The activities of his Cabinet, urged citizens to "save up and get rich", was hit on the welfare of the majority of taxpayers, however, contributed to the stabilization of capitalism. Spring - summer 1324 in the country erupted acute political crisis, the cause of which was the assassination of Nazi leader of the Unitarian Socialist Party D. Matteotti. Newspapers vied published reports of the killing, cities and towns boiling with anger on the streets were thousands of demonstrations, strikes broke out natural. The masses demanded the resignation of Mussolini
and punish. Members of the opposition non-fascist parties have left the parliamentary palace Montechitorio and formed an opposition bloc named by analogy with one of the episodes of the struggle in ancient Rome, Aventine. Mussolini
was forced to adjourn the Parliament. Never before had he been so shocked and confused. According to his aides, in those depression days of the Duce was engulfed in panic: rushed around the room, beating his fists on his head, shouting that fascism in Italy is over forever. And then he fell into prostration. So he caught the ringleader of Bologna fascists L. Arpinati and four skvadristov specially came to Rome to support his Duce. Several years later, Mussolini
confessed to his doctor that "in those days would be enough pressure of 50, no, even 20 strong men," and he would have resigned.
Gradually, the peak of the crisis has passed, the bourgeoisie together again on the platform of fascism. January 3, 1925 Mussolini
made a speech in Parliament, which meant that fascism in advance. In a short time in Italy was published a series of "emergency legislation" that led to the elimination of the democratic institutions of society and the establishment of fascist dictatorship.
. Patriotic poster of Mussolini
arrogated to himself the new official title - "the head of government" and was henceforth to be formally accountable for their actions just before the king, who, in turn, could sign the decrees only with the knowledge and consent of the Duce
. The traditional separation of legislative and executive powers was largely negated, as the government was empowered to make laws even without the formal consent of the Parliament. Duce firmly mastered the habit of announcing its decisions from the balconies of the official residences:'s palaces "Chigi", later "Venice". Meet prior to the palace Blackshirts, and the simply curious enthusiastically shouted "Yes!" in response to a question Duce needed whether or not a decree. The authorities had no alternative but to present information appropriately is a "public approval".
For Italy, the 30's were a time of consolidation and the rule of Mussolini
regime. Duce was sophisticated and intelligent dictator. He understood, . that violence alone can not create a solid foundation of political power, . why fascism actively implanting in the society own system of ideological and political and moral "values", . based on the unconditional recognition of the authority of the leader,
. Any dissent was suppressed by force. Under katoliticheskoy Italy ensuring social cohesion is largely dependent on the State's relations with the Vatican. Of course, Mussolini
wanted very much to solve the "Roman question". In September 1870, when the royal troops occupied Rome, the high priest cursed the Italian state and forbade Catholics to participate in political life.
in his youth was a militant atheist, and even some of his articles, signed as a true heretic "
. Malicious attacks on Christian doctrine, the cult of his ministers continued until the early 20's, but soon the tone of the speeches of Mussolini
has changed dramatically.
. Pius XI - Pope, collaborated with Mussolini
. In the first speech in Parliament he had the courage to mention the decades of not climb "Roman question", . and becoming prime, . allocated funds for the reconstruction of destroyed churches, . in schools and hospitals returned the crucifix, . recognized the Catholic University in Milan and increased the salary of sixty thousand parish priests.,
. Actions were dictated by the needs of Mussolini
's political strategy and tactics
. "Roman question" was settled in 1929. In exchange for oftsialnoe recognition of the Kingdom of Italy Vatican received the status of an independent state with the territory of 44 hectares and a population of about a thousand people. However, the Holy See's relations with the fascist regime were not easy and further repeatedly sharpened. Holding the control of secret police, . Duce constantly demanded from the agents as much information about the mindset in the country, . both the activities of senior hierarchs, . and to utterances of ex-political: opponents, . were in prison or exile.,
from the pages of newspapers appeared as the author of "great achievements" of the nation, its pride and a symbol
. He was accompanied by portraits of the chief man in the street everywhere were stuck on the walls of houses and trams, . his busts binge lonili city squares and parks, . his remarks "decorated" promotional poster, . gables of houses and public institutions, . shields along highways and railways,
. It seems that at some point, Mussolini
, and he came to believe that he is, "the Italian-sent by Providence, that all her success is the fruit of his creative genius. "The Italians, rest assured - he once said during his visit to Reggio Emilia - I will lead you higher and farther."
Swelling of the myth of the "superman", leading the nation to "bright future", reached its climax in the second half of the 30-ies. In honor of the Duce composed poems and songs, filming movies, creating monumental sculptures and figurines stamped, drew pictures and printed postcards. Endless praise poured at mass rallies and official ceremonies, radio and in newspapers. Since 1933 a new official chronology beginning to count the years of the Nazi era. "
Fascism, introduced into the daily lives of Italians a series of rituals, conventionally joined together the notion of "Nazi style". "The whole complex of our everyday habits must be changed: our manners eat, dress, work and sleep," - said of Mussolini
in 1932. Mussolini
regime began to introduce into society a new code of conduct.
poses for the sculptor
. Among the Nazis were eliminated handshakes, women were forbidden to wear pants, for pedestrians to impose unilateral movement on the left side of the street.
. By government decision, all Italians, regardless of age, social status and gender had on Saturday to engage the military and political training of sports
himself was an example to emulate, arranging mass heats, running hurdles and horse riding. Became fashionable and widespread mass gymnastic exercises, for movement at the same pace, according to the fascists, to instil a sense of collectivism.
. During the 30 years, has another new mass ritual: "fascist wedding, each of which Mussolini
was considered away the bride
. Encourage population growth, he raised to the rank of state policy and gave it special significance, expressing his intent in a concise formula: "More people - more soldiers - more power.
. Much of the townsfolk, . especially in the mid 30-ies, . judged Mussolini
something like this: he has established order in the country, . many unemployed given work, . genuinely cares about the greatness of a nation and is trying to establish "social justice",
. Talk about "social justice" encourage the planting of the country's corporate system, aimed at idea Duce, to overcome class antagonisms. Duce surrounded by a lot of uneducated people. Mussolini
The principle of recruitment was ridiculously simple - personal liking or dislike Duce. Often the choice is determined by his fortunate appearance, ability to lodge itself, good joke or anything else like that. May 26, 1927, speaking in the Chamber of Deputies, both Mussolini
spoke about his staff: "All the ministers and their deputies - are soldiers. They go where they send head of government, and stop, if I order you to stop. "
Duce did not conceal that OVRA on his behalf monitors privacy and correspondence hierarchs. Each of them not for a moment a feeling of insecurity and fear for their career, because Mussolini
often and thoroughly "shuffle" his court, reporting on the displacement and movement through the media.
. Many of the appointment is formally carried out on behalf of the King, at the reception to which Mussolini
was regularly on Tuesdays and Thursdays
. Legally, Victor Emmanuel the Third remained head of state, which created the appearance of dualism in governance. From time to time between the Duce and King of differences, but in all matters of principle won by Mussolini
. He even managed to make a fascist song "Gio-vinetstsa" the national anthem along with the "Royal March". Perhaps it was the only instance in history when the country has two official national anthem.
Unlike his son-G. Ciano Mussolini
sought to unrestrained personal enrichment. He was indifferent to money, but not in the benefits that they provide. The fanatically motorist, he bought for his own pleasure some of the most prestigious cars, and often used them. Another passion was his horses - in his stables, there were more than a dozen.
Duce has always lived for herself. He belonged to the family - not because of excessive workload, but because of the nature of the warehouse. Communicating with children (Edda, Vittorio, Bruno, Romano, Anna-Maria) was superficial, close friends of the Duce, never had. He had a good relationship with my brother and sister, and in December 1931 when Arnaldo died, Mussolini
felt deep sorrow the loss. Another personal attack Duce experienced in connection with the death of his son Bruno, crashed during a training flight in August 1941.
For the leader of the crowd - superman, alien earthly passions. But the monumental facade, of course, always hiding a mere mortal, with all human weaknesses. There have been ascetics nor Hitler, nor Lenin, nor Stalin. Mussolini
, however, with its southern temperament far surpassed them in love affairs.
Innocence lost in the future dictator of the age of 16 with a cheap prostitute. By his own admission, he had "eyes undressing every woman they saw". But in reality, to undress a woman could rarely.
In any case, undress completely. Love meeting took place in places where everything had to be done very quickly - in parks, doorways or on the beautiful river Rabbi. Made itself felt, and bullying tendencies. Once Mussolini
stabbed (with whom he never parted), another lover: that something had angered him.
In 1909, Benito
first fell in love on the serious. Raquel Guidi, his former pupil (Mussolini
, then a teacher at school), worked in a local hotel bar. She rejected the advances of a solid fan, but did not tell him "yes". By the time a young teacher determined to devote himself to politics and feared that family ties may hamper its ambitious plans. He suggested Raquel civil marriage, but it did not suit her parents. Here Benito
played melodramatic scene. During a visit to the house of Raquel, he pulled out a pistol and announced: "You see this pistol, signora GvidiN It 6 rounds. If Raquel reply to my offer of a refusal, the first bullet will get it, and the second - I. Choose ". It impressed. Mussolini
led his daughter from the parental home, and not officially registered their marriage.
But later he was forced to back down. The fact that another mistress, Ida Dalser, bore him a son, and everywhere was reported as Signor Mussolini
. This is a future dictator did not suit, and he formalized his marriage to Raquel. It was the first world war. And still later, in 1937, Duce upechet Ida Dalser in a psychiatric hospital, where she finished her earthly way. Her son Albino die during the Second World War.
Raquel same Mussolini
bore four children - in 1910, the daughter of Edu, in 1918 - the son Vittorino, in 1927 - another son, Romano, and in 1929-meters - the daughter of Anna Maria. For a long time, his wife and children live separately, and not even in Rome.
French journalist Magda Fontange - Mussolini
Duce visited them three or four times a year. But after the Nazis declared that family life - is sacred, Mussolini
had to transport the family to a. However, virtually Benito
and Rachel lived separately. Even among his Raquel turned to her husband only as "Il Duce". Mussolini
was the wife of a peasant woman of sober mind and practical minds. She did not interfere in affairs of state spouse knew about many of his amorous adventures, but actively entering into battle only when they felt the threat to family well-being. Mussolini
himself admitted that he was not very attentive father. He tried to justify themselves by saying that the state cares not leave him free time. Nevertheless, the dictator always found time for love comfort. Many attendees come to know his Duce irrepressible male temperament - or on a broad carpet, pave the floor great room, or standing at the window sill. The leader was so busy with the affairs of the Party and state, which sometimes did not have time off is not something that the shoes, but pants.
In his sexual behavior manifested sometimes sadistic. He often beat Raquel, a French journalist Fontange Magda, who considered Duce "fatal man, once a slightly strangled during intercourse, her own scarf. The Frenchwoman was not in love with the memory of Mussolini
, and when he decided to get rid of annoying fans, ordered her to hand over 15 thousand francs, and to the border, even tried to commit suicide.
. With beautiful Klarettoy Petachchi Duce met when he was already over fifty
. Their relationship has become almost official status, and Rachel had to accept this. Klaretta - probably the only woman Mussolini
really liked. He holil her and cherished, precious gifts to apartments and luxury villas. Once Raquel abandoned in the face of her rival: "One day you finished the Piazza Loreto, whore!"
Klaretta Petachchi - only love Mussolini
This area of Milan were going to a prostitute lowest poshiba. The prophecy came true, but it was much worse.
Klaretta Petachchi and Benito Mussolini
met for the first time April 24, 1932. She was 20 years old, and he - 51 year. Klaretta at the time was engaged to a young officer Aviation, for whom would soon marry. In 1936 they served at the official divorce.
Klaretta born February 28, 1912 and grew up, as all the younger Italian generation of that time, the cult of unattainable and beloved Duce - Mussolini
. It is therefore not surprising that as soon as they met, she completely loses his head and gave all of herself, body and soul, had long chosen her man. This love and devotion, she will carry throughout his short life, which will connect entirely to the very hour of death with Mussolini
. For anybody in the State Palace was no secret that the Duce liked untouched virgins. It was rumored that he even interrupted the government meeting to meet with some of them. There have even been allegations that a sofa Palace Venice passed 400 fans. But Klaretta kept inside all their jealousy and was proud of constant intimacy with Duce and not at the break of Mussolini
and his wife.
In order to legitimize any way their relationship Mussolini
asked his mother Klaretty permission for their official communications. About Petachche begin to mention the numerous newspapers and newsreels of the time, she becomes a famous character. Biography (Part II)