Adolf Hitler( Chancellors of Germany)
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Biography Adolf Hitler
"He loved his land and his people, but this love was very strange, it mingled with zoological demoseksualizm and dream".
Hitler was born on April 20, 1889 (since 1933 this day became a national holiday of Nazi Germany).
Father of the future Fuhrer Alois Hitler was the first shoemaker, then the customs official, who until 1876 had the surname Schicklgruber (there is a widespread opinion that this is the real name of Hitler).
Mother - Clara, came from a peasant family. Hitler was born in Austria, in Braunau, a village in the mountainous parts of the country. The family often moved from place to place and finally settled in Leonding, a suburb of Linz, where he bought his own house.
Hitler was born on his father's third marriage. All elder members of Hitler's extended family were apparently illiterate. Priests recorded the names of these persons in the church and the parish books, there was an apparent inconsistency: someone called them Guttler, someone Gidler and so on.
Hitler studied badly in high school, so he did not graduate College and received a matriculation certificate. His father died relatively early - in 1903. Mother sold the house in Leonding and settled in Linz. At the age of 16 years the future Fuhrer lived independently from his mother. At one time, even studied music. As a young he preferred Wagner's operas, Germanic mythology and adventure novels of Karl May, Hitler's favorite composer was Wagner adult, favorite movie - King Kong. As a boy, Hitler liked cakes and picnics, long conversations in the night, he liked to look at pretty girls, in adulthood, these habits have increased.
He spent time visiting theaters and opera, copying canvases romantic, reading adventure books and walking in the woods in the vicinity of Linz. His mother spoiled him, and Adolf behaved like a dandy, wore black leather gloves, bowler hat, walking with a cane out of mahogany with an ivory handle. He contemptuously rejected all proposals to find a job.
At the age of 18, he went to Vienna with the hope of becoming a great artist. His efforts to enter Academy of Arts were unsuccessful, so he had to earn a living painting postcards and advertisements. He was advised to enter the Institute of Architecture, but it was necessary to have a matriculation. Years of stay in Vienna (1907-1913) were regarded by Hitler as the most instructive in his life.
In the future, he said, he needed only to add some details to the "great ideas" that he had (hatred of Jews, liberal democrats and petty-bourgeois society). L. von Liebenfels influenced him most, who stated that the future dictator should protect the Aryan race, enslaving or killing the subhuman.
Hitler had read all books that came to hand. Subsequently, the fragmentary knowledge, gleaned from the popular philosophical, sociological, historical works made up Hitler's "philosophy".
Then he ran out of money left by her mother (she died of breast cancer in 1909), he slept on park benches, then in the rooming house in Meidling. And, finally, settled on Meldemanshtrasse in a charitable institution Mennerhaym that means "Man's House". He did different temporary works.
In Munich, Hitler still lived in poverty: earning money from the sale of watercolors and advertising. He served as a soldier during the first World War.Germany lost this war.
He made lists of soldiers and officers involved in the April uprising of workers and soldiers in Munich
The WCT party leader, Anton Drexler asked him to join it. After consulting with his superiors, Hitler accepted this offer. Hitler became a member of the party at number 55, and later at number 7 became a member of its executive committee.
Hitler with all his oratorical fervor rushed to gain popularity in the party, at least within the limits of Munich. In autumn 1919, he took part three times in crowded gatherings. Hitler's success attracted to him workers, artisans and people who had no permanent job, in short, all those who made up the backbone of the Party. At the end of 1920 the party there were already 3000 people.
In January 1921 Hitler had already rented circus Krone, where he spoke to an audience of 6500 people. Gradually Hitler get rid of the founders of the Party. Apparently, at the same time, he renamed it the National Socialist Workers' Party of Germany, abbreviated NSDAP (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei). Hitler received the post of first president with dictatorial powers.
Already in 1921 to help the party had been established storm troops - CA. Their leader after Emil Maurice and Ulriha Clinch was Hermann Goering.
So Hitler was known. All the German newspapers wrote about him. His portraits placed weeklies. And at that time, Hitler needed any "glory", even the most scandalous. April 1, 1924, Hitler and his two accomplices were sentenced to five years in the fortress for march in Berlin, setting off the time that they had already spent in prison. In the prison he could walk in the garden and see numerous guests and business visitors, reply to letters and telegrams.It was like a resort.
Hitler "invented" anti-Semitism in Germany. And he was not the last one who used it for his own purposes.
The main ideas reflected in Hitler's Nazi party program (25 points) were as following:
1) restoration of power in Germany by bringing together under one roof, the state of all Germans;
2) approval of the rule Germanskoy empire in Europe, mainly in the east of the continent in the Slavic lands;
3) cleansing Germanic territory from infesting her 'foreigners', especially the Jews;
4) elimination of the corrupt parliamentary regime, replacing it with the corresponding German spirit vertical hierarchy, in which the will of the people is embodied in the leader, endowed with absolute power;
5) the release of people from the dictatorship of the world's financial capital and the full support of small and artisanal production, creation of the liberal professions.
These ideas Adodf Hitler stated in his autobiography 'Mein Kampf'.
From the fortress of Landsberg, Hitler was released Dec. 20, 1924. He had a plan of action. Then rise of his career began.
The peak of the success of Hitler in that period was the first party congress in August 1927 in Nuremberg. Hitler never received an absolute majority of votes at elections. And a major obstacle in his path were extremely strong working-class party - the Social Democratic and Communist.
January 30, 1933, 86-year-old President Hindenburg appointed the head of the Nazi Party Adolf Hitler Chancellor of Germany.
Already at the first meeting on 30 January was held to discuss measures against the Communist Party of Germany. The next day, Hitler made a radio. "Give us a four-year term. Our task - the fight against communism. "
In late March, issued a law on death penalty. Introduced the death penalty by hanging.
March 31 - the first law on deprivation of the rights of individual land. The dissolution of the provincial parliaments. (In the parliament of Prussia.)
April 1 - "boycott" for Jewish citizens.
April 4 - ban for leaving the country. The introduction of special "visas".
April 7 - the second law on deprivation of rights of land. Return of all titles and orders, canceled in 1919. Law on the status of "officialdom", the return of his former rights. From the corps officials "excluded person" unreliable "and" non-Aryan.
April 14 - the expulsion of 15 per cent of professors from universities and other educational institutions.
April 26 - the creation of the Gestapo.
May 2 - Appointment of the Lцгnder "imperial governors, subordinate to Hitler (in most cases the former Gauleiters).
May 7 - "cleansing" among writers and artists and so on.
By the summer of 1934, Hitler was faced with serious opposition in the ranks of his party. "Old men" the SA storm troopers led by E. Remus demanded a more radical social reform, call for the "second revolution" and insisted on the need to strengthen their role in the army. Against such radicalism and claims on the leadership of the SA Army, made the German generals. Hitler, who need the support of the army and he himself feared unmanageable storm troopers, made against former colleagues. Accusing the Rema in preparation for murder Hitler, he made a bloody massacre of June 30, 1934 ( "Night of Long Knives"), during which destroyed several hundred leaders of the SA, including Rem. Been physically destroyed Strasser, von Kar, former Reich Chancellor Schleicher, General and other leaders. Hitler gained absolute power over Germany.
Soon the army officers swear allegiance to the constitution or not the country, and personally to Hitler. Chief Justice of Germany declared that "the law and the constitution - it is the will of our Fц+hrer". Hitler sought not only to the legal, political and social dictatorship. "Our revolution - he once said - not complete as long as we do not degumaniziruem people."
It is known that the Nazi leader wanted to start a world war already in 1938. Prior to that he managed to "peaceful" way to connect to large areas of Germany. In particular, in 1935 Saar region with the help of a plebiscite. The plebiscite was a brilliant stunt Nazi diplomacy and propaganda. 91 per cent of the population voted for the "accession". Perhaps the results of the voting was rigged.
Western politicians, contrary to basic common sense, began to rent out one position after another. Already in 1935, Hitler concluded with England the notorious "agreement of the Navy, which gave the Nazis the opportunity to create open warships. In the same year in Germany was introduced universal conscription. March 7, 1936, Hitler ordered the occupation of the demilitarized Rhineland. The West remained silent, although he could not see that the appetite of the dictator are growing.
Second World War.
In 1936, the Nazis intervened in the civil war in Spain - Franco was their puppet. West admired the order in Germany, sent their athletes and fans at the Olympics. And this after the "night of long knives" - killing Remus and his storm troopers, after the Leipzig trial Dimitrov and after the adoption of the infamous Nuremberg Laws which turned the Jewish population of Germany in the pariahs!
In all the actions, Hitler acted not as a strategist, not as a tactician, not even as a politician, but as a player who knew his partners in the West were ready for all sorts of concessions. He studied the weakness of strong, constantly telling them about the world, flattery, cunning, and unsure of themselves intimidated, suppressed.
March 15, 1939 the Nazis invaded Czechoslovakia, and announced the creation of so-called protectorate, the territory of Bohemia and Moravia.
Even after the declaration of war by France and Britain, Hitler seized for 18 days, half of Poland, routed its army. The Polish state was not able to fight one on one with a powerful Wehrmacht. The first phase of the war in Germany called "sit" war, as in other countries - the "strange" or even "funny". All this time, Hitler remained master of the situation. May 10, Hitler began his march to the West: he became the first victims of the Netherlands and Belgium. During the six weeks of the Nazi Wehrmacht conquered France, crushed and pressed to the sea expeditionary English corpus. Hitler signed a truce in the parlor car of Marshal Foch, in a forest near Compiegne, which is exactly in the same spot where capitulated in 1918 Germany. Blitzkrieg - Hitler's dream - to pass.
Western historians now recognize that the first stage of the war the Nazis had achieved political rather than military victories. But no army was not even in the remotest degree as motorized, as Germany. Gambler Hitler felt like writing then, "the greatest generals of all time" and "striking Seer technically and tactically" ... "creator of modern armed forces" (Jodl).
It should be remembered that Hitler could not argue that it is authorized only to glorify and deify. OKW has become, in the apt words of one researcher, in the Office of the Fuhrer ". The results were soon apparent: in the army of the climate of sverheyforii.
Were there generals who openly contradicted Hitler? Certainly not.
English historian Trevor-Roper convincingly described, that from 1925 until his death, Hitler never doubted for a moment, that peoples of the Soviet Union could be turned into the voiceless slaves manageb by Germans, supervisors.
For the development of national culture and increasing the sources of power he needed to acquire additional space, land. Capturing new Lebensraum in the East and enslavement of the peoples living there were considered by Hitler as the main goal and starting point for the struggle for world domination.
The first major defeat Wehrmacht in the winter of 1941/1942 near Moscow had a strong influence on Hitler. In December 1941, Hitler lost inner confidence in Germany victory. A disaster at Stalingrad convinced him of inevitable of defeat. He never told nobody about it. Ambition did not allow him to confess. He continued to persuade his people about inevitable victory and demanded to make as much effort as possible to achieve it. Ignoring the reality, he ignored all the experts' advice which were contrary to his plans.
Since 1943, all activities of Hitler actually limited by the ongoing military problems. He did not make far-reaching policy decisions. Almost all the time he was at a rate that is surrounded by only the closest military advisers. Hitler was still speaking to the people, though less interested in its position and attitudes.
In contrast to other tyrants and conquerors, Hitler committed crimes not only for political and military reasons, but also haunted his personal motives. By his orer a system of extermination was created for people, a kind of conveyor belt for murdering of people, elimination and disposal of their remains. He was responsible for the mass extermination of people on ethnic, racial, social and other grounds that the jurists classified as crimes against humanity.
Many of Hitler's crimes were not connected with the protection of national interests of Germany and the German people, not justified by military necessity. Rather, they are to some extent even undermine the military might of Germany. Thus, for example, to carry out mass killings in death camps set up by the Nazis, Hitler had in the rear of tens of thousands of SS. Of these, one could create more than one division, and to intensify the troops of the army. For the delivery of millions of prisoners in death camps ofomnoe required number of railway and other transport, but it could be used for military purposes.
By mid-spring of 1945 Hitler had no longer any hope for a miracle. April 22, 1945, he decided not to leave the capital to stay in his bunker and committed suicide. He was not interested in the fate of German people. The Germans believed Hitler should have been killed and replaced by a stronger leader. He feared the court of peoples for the crimes. Hitler committed suicide on April 30, 1945, and his corpse was burned in the garden of the Reich Chancellery next to the bunker, where the Fuhrer spent the last months of his life.
Photos of Adolf Hitler