Mao Tse-tung( Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China)
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Biography Mao Tse-tung
"How could 800 million people
. live, not boryasN "
. Mao Tse-tung
. Mao Zedong was born on December 26, 1893 (in the 19 th day 11 th of the moon 19-year reign of the imperial motto Guangxu) in south China village of Shaoshan in Xiangtan County of Hunan Province
. According to Mao, his father - Mao Zhenshen during the years of military service had saved a little money, returning to his native village, became a small trader. He bought rice from farmers and then reselling it to the city merchants pa higher price.
Mao's father went to school only two years and knew the characters just enough to be able to book-keeping. Mao's mother was illiterate woman. She had a great influence on his son, instilling in his Buddhist beliefs.
When he was five years old, he was given the middle name - Zedong, this meant that childhood is over and he should do all possible work. Three years later, Mao began to attend a regular school. Education was based on memorization of Confucian canonical books.
In 13 years of Mao, leaving school, he worked in the field and helped his father carry cash accounts. A year later his father married Mao on his girlfriend over six years (about her fate is unknown).
Father expected to pass over time, its commercial business in the hands of his son. But the son showed character. He ran away from home and began taking lessons from an unemployed legal scholar. This went on for six months. Then, under the leadership of the old scientist, he continued to study the Chinese classics, as well as read modern literature.
In 1910, Mao goes to school in the county Tungshan Xiangxiang Province Shunan. Teachers pointed to his ability, knowledge of Chinese classics, Confucian canonical books. Mao recalls two books sent to him by a cousin, which outlined the reform efforts Kang Yuveya (a supporter of liberal reforms). One of them, he even memorized. His favorite characters were the founder of the first unified Chinese empire of Qin Shi Huang, . robbers from the novel "Water Margin", . military and political figures of the era Han, . derived in the novel "Three Kingdoms", . then Napoleon, . about which he learned from the booklet "The great heroes of world history.",
. At age 18, Mao joined the army
. Here, reading "Hsiang's Daily and other newspapers, he first becomes acquainted with the ideas of socialism. Six months later, Mao left the army, while he lived in his native village, and helped his father.
In 1913, Mao comes to the city of Changsha - the capital of Hunan Province with the firm intention to continue education. He enrolled in a teacher training college, where he graduated in 1918. Mao Zedong and the Chinese here reads philosophers and writers, outlining their thoughts in their diaries. His student works as an exemplary hung on the walls of the school.
Mao at that time was heavily influenced by the ideas of the movement for a new culture, who preached his favorite professor Yang Changji. It looked for a way to combine the advanced ideas of the West with the great spiritual heritage of China itself.
Mao Tse-tung in the 20-ies of XX century
Since 1918, begins and Mao's enthusiasm for anarchism, which was a long and deep. He met in Beijing with active members of anarchism, enter into any correspondence with them, and then tries to even create an anarchist society in Hunan. He believes in the need for decentralization of governance in China and in general tends to anarchist methods of. Mao enthusiastically reading of P. The country has created the first revolutionary-democratic association of students, of whom subsequently left many leaders of the Communist Party of China.
. Arriving in Beijing in 1918 on the recommendation of Professor Ian Changji, while reading the lecture at Peking University, Mao settled assistant librarian at Peking University, Li Zhao, Duch -
. It was formed by a Marxist and an outstanding leader, who in 1919 created a circle in Beijing for the Study of Marxism. Mao participated in its work.
Mao Zedong was 27 years old when he joined the communist circle, and a year later became one of the founders of the CCP. He began to strengthen its position by discrediting the recognized leaders of the CPC Li Dazhao and Chen Duxiu, and simultaneously organized persecution of all who opposed the nomination of his own.
. In July 1921, after several preliminary meetings in Shanghai, met Congress of the Communist Party of China
. The congress was attended by two delegates from each of the six groups. Hunan Mao represented the organization.
At the III Congress of the CPC in the center of attention was the question of the tactics of the Party, that is the attitude towards the KMT. In June 1923 it was decided that the KMT should act as the main organizing force in the national revolution.
Mao was among the most active proponents of this line.
Chen Duxiu - one of the founders of the CCP
Speaking at the congress, he abandoned his earlier position, when spoken in favor of the independence of trade unions. Mao called for the transfer of trade unions under the leadership of the KMT. Its active and rapid transition to the new position provided him a new position in the CPC and the KMT. At the III Congress he was elected to the Central Committee, and shortly afterwards (January 1924) was appointed head orgotdelom. On the I Congress of the Kuomintang, Mao was elected a candidate member of the Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang.
In 1924, the Kuomintang was reorganized in a more centralized basis in a political party. Mao took an active part in the forum KMT leaders who gathered from all over China. And when in 1924 the KMT had established training courses for leaders of the peasant movement, . niktb not surprised, . that it was Mao's CCP proposal was one of the top leaders of these courses, . although he was not interested in the peasant movement.,
. In April 1927, Mao was appointed as a member of the Standing Committee of the interim executive committee of the All-China Peasant Association, which was under the influence of the KMT
. Even promaoist Schram notes that Mao at that time continued to insist on cooperation not only with the KMT, but also with Chiang Kai-shek.
Meanwhile, 12 April 1927, Chiang Kai-shek made a counter-revolutionary coup in Shanghai. After a few months, representatives of the Communist Party were expelled from the KMT. As a wave of mass arrests of revolutionary workers and peasants. Stage of the united national front is behind. Civil war broke out.
At an emergency meeting of the CPC Central Committee 7 August 1927, the CPC leadership has taken a course on the organization of armed rebellion. The August meeting has developed a program for a series of uprisings in the countryside.
. At that meeting, Mao was elected a member of the Central Committee and candidate member of the Interim Political Bureau of CPC Central Committee in the various provinces, . where the peasant movement during the revolution of 1925-1927 the maximum amplitude reached, . to organize the uprising, . logged in the history of the CPC as a revolt "Autumn Harvest", . were sent to representatives of the CPC Central Committee,
. Mao went to his native province of Hunan.
Rebellion "Autumn Harvest" generally ended tragically. The November Plenum of the CPC Central Committee in 1927, Mao Zedong's rule from among the candidates for membership of the Interim Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee for the mistakes committed by Hunan Provincial Committee. Home - installation only on military force. This plenum is famous by the fact that it was used by the new concept of "Maoism". This new slope was characterized as "military adventurism."
. Leftist approach is particularly well expressed in 1930-1931, when Mao sided with Li Li-san had relied to draw the USSR into a world war, to accelerate, thus the Chinese revolution
. Over leftist adventurism Mao Zedong repeatedly subjected partvzyskaniyam.
. In January 1935 at a meeting in Tszuni Mao Zedong, playing on his vanity war, is the very most,
. Sun Yat-sen - the head of the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party)
. and criticizing the chairman of the Military Council of the CPC Central Committee and political commissar Zhou Enlai, and Acting Secretary General of CPC Qin Bansyana (Bo Gu), has elected himself to the secretariat of the Central Committee.
. As leader in 1935, the CPC, Mao Zedong continued to serve with leftist tactic that could undermine the national united front in China
. This was clearly demonstrated during the so-called Hsi-an incident in December 1936, when Mao stood for the elimination of Chiang Kai-shek, who was taken prisoner patriotic military. But in 1937 - 1938 years of Mao Zedong turned sharply to the right, . and in those areas, . which were controlled by the Chinese Red Army, . prepared under his direction the October (1937) Directive CPC Central Committee Propaganda Department banned the preaching of any class struggle, . democracy and internationalism,
. And when Mao and his supporters succeeded in the late 30's - early 40-ies to oust from the leadership of the CPC Communist-internationalists, a number of documents intended for the party and the army was reinforced by nationalistic propaganda.
. To keep the CCP seized power, Mao Zedong began to impose his own cult of personality
. The main tool for achieving this goal are the mass political campaigns. In 1941 - 1945 years, . when attention and energy of the CPSU (b) focused on the fight against Germany's fascism, . Mao spent in Yenan chzhenfen - "rectification campaign", . in which falsified the history of the CPC, . introducing its own figure as its main character, . seeking absolute authority and full power in the Party and the Red Army-controlled areas,
. The campaign was characterized by elaborate plan with a diverse arsenal of means of implementation.
Mao Zedong to control the media, has created a strong foothold in the security. Special forces (headed by his confidant - Kang Sheng, a man with a suspicious past) launched arrests of "suspects" in connection with the Kuomintang and the Japanese. Honest Communists were forced to confess all sorts of anti-party misconduct, praising Mao, nearly all of his opponents in the leadership of the CPC have been forced to publicly admit their views, "harmful" or simply abide by the decision which condemned them to the CPC Central Committee.
. The many ups and downs have taught Mao Zedong to mistrust
He could be gentle and courteous, but sometimes fell into a blind rage. Manipulated the mass consciousness, combining the neglect of the masses (known to his dictum: "The people - a blank sheet of paper on which you can write any characters") with the thesis that history creates for the people of. Throughout his life he sought to create your own cult. He stubbornly planted this cult, killing all those who made attempts to speak out against. He always was aimed at, in order to eliminate from the political arena of his rivals. Mao Zedong copied Stalin, admired, feared and hated him.
Mao learned to use the whole arsenal of means known to him, covering the pursuit of personal power appeals to fight for the high ideals of the revolution. Distinctive feature of his character was the ability to bring over some and forcing others to serve themselves. It is widely used traditional techniques to nominate staff, when first someone punished, and then suddenly raised to the position. It was brought up personal loyalty to the leader. After winning in the inner-struggle with Li Li-san and Chang Guotao, y in Gu and Wang Ming, Mao Zedong and then concentrated force against the main enemy - Chiang Kai-Shek. With this enemy (later - with his shadow on Taiwan), Mao had a chance to fight to the end of life, even after the victory in the revolution of 1949.
It propagated a new regime of the CCP. The result was the complete subordination of all the leaders of the will of Mao Zedong. It is clearly apparent at the VII Congress of the CPC in 1945. Mao's speech at the congress was a typical. Congress as a whole was marked by the triumph of ideology and policies of Mao Zedong and his group.
The congress adopted a new charter of the CPC, which stated: "The Communist Party of China in all its work is guided by the ideas of Mao Zedong". It was replaced by former phrase of Marxism-Leninism as the ideology of the Communist Party.
Mao Zedong was elected at a specially established for him the presidency of the CPC Central Committee. This post was coined by Mao, who now becomes the higher the Secretary-General of the Central Committee. And since Chiang Kai-shek, too, was chairman veyyuanchzhan (in the supreme state authority), and among his people and was called "Co", that Mao became "President" created its image as head of the nation.
. The slogan "antiquity in the service of modernity" as an ideological position has arisen at Mao's no accident
. Entry Mao in Beijing in 1949
. The ideas of the superiority of Chinese culture over the others, formed the basis of education in old China, formed the dogma of his kitaetsentristskoy foreign policy.
. One of the favorite works of Mao Zedong was the "Book of the governor of Khan"
. Ancient Legist Shang Yang claimed that "the State can achieve peace through agriculture and war. At the state that likes to force, it is difficult to attack, and the State in which it is difficult to attack, certainly achieve prosperity ... If troops are committing acts that are not venture to the enemy - this means that (country) is strong ... If (during the war) the country to take actions that the enemy would be ashamed of, it will win. "
. From the first steps in the journalistic field in April 1917, Mao Zedong spoke almost exclusively about the rebirth of the former greatness of the Chinese Empire
. Road to this was through "the revival of the spirit of military prowess". Credo of the power struggle left for him mostly for good.
. In October 1938, at the VI CPC Central Committee Plenum of 6-th convocation of Mao Zedong made a report "Place of the Chinese Communist Party in the National War" and formulated the theory of Marxism to Chinese conditions: "The communists are supporters of the international doctrine - Marxism, . Marxism, however, we can implement only the specific characteristics of our country and through a national uniform,
. The great strength of Marxism-Leninism is the fact that it is inextricably linked with the concrete revolutionary practice of each of the country. For the Communist Party of China, this means that you need to learn to apply the Marxist-Leninist theory to the specific conditions of China ... "
In 1946-1949 years the people's revolution in China ended the civil war. September 21, 1949 convened the first session of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference in Beypine. She was assigned to the organization of the new state and the composition of its elected leaders. In the new coalition government includes representatives of eight political parties and groupings, as well as "independent personality with democratic convictions". Mao as the chairman of the Central People's Government was more deputies. In those years, he devoted much attention to foreign policy.
Major wave of repression began in 1951, when the proposal was made by Mao, "The situation of the penalties for counter-revolutionary activities" (20 May 1951).
. Liu Shaoqi - one of the supporters of Mao
. This law provided, among other forms of punishment, the death penalty or long prison sentences for all sorts of political and ideological crimes.
. In 1951, China's big cities held public show trials, in which after the public announcement of crimes "dangerous counter-revolutionaries" were sentenced to death
. In Beijing alone, over several months took place about 30 000 rallies to them in the general complexity present more than three million people. Long lists of executed "counter-revolutionaries" constantly appearing in newspapers.
. Regarding the number of victims, in October 1951 was officially stated that 6 months of this year was 800 000 cases considered "counter-revolutionaries".
. Later, Zhou Enlai said that 16.8 percent of "counter-revolutionaries" who were on trial, were sentenced to death.
. After the victory of the people's revolution, Mao Zedong always tried skipping the objective factors that accelerate the development of China
. The thirst for greatness and national superiority led to his naive dream: in a short time to beat in the economically and militarily the Soviet Union and the United States, and hence all countries. Country has become a testing ground for a grand experiment, testing his ideas in practice. In December 1953, the CPC Central Committee set the task of creating by 1957 the agricultural production cooperatives, semi-socialist type that would unite the 20 percent of farmers. This was seen, of course, as instructed, and co-operation has gone underway. If in July 1955 in the cooperatives was 16.9 million peasant families (14%), then by June 1956 there were already more than 108 million households (90.4%). It was dropped on the scheduled plan for the gradual development of forms of cooperation.
In 1958, China launched another nationwide campaign. At this time, it became the object of flies, mosquitoes, rats and sparrows. Each Chinese family was to demonstrate their involvement in the campaign and to collect a large bag, brim full of these pests. Particularly intense was offensive to sparrows. The strategy was to not allow the wheel to sit down, keep them all the time in the air, in flight, until they fall to pieces. Then they were killed.