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AUGUST (August)

( Elector of Saxony)

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Biography AUGUST (August)
(1526-1586) - Elector of Saxony. From Albertinskoy line Wettin dynasty. The second son of Henry the Pious, Duke of Saxony, Mecklenburg, and Catherine, the younger brother of Moritz, Elector of Saxony,

. Born in Freiberg and raised in the Lutheran faith, . He received a thorough and comprehensive education in the University of Leipzig, in his youth spent some time at the court of the Hapsburgs in Prague, . was in friendly relations with Prince Maximilian, . future Maximilian II, . Germany and Holy Roman Emperor,
. When Maurice succeeded his father as Duke (in 1541), the brothers made a part of tribal holdings Albertinskoy line, which resulted in a. received field Freiberga, Lauha, Sangerhausen, Veysenzee, Kindelbryukka and Sachsenburg, as well as the dignity of the administrator in Merseburg. During the absence of Moritz (1542) was regent of the Duchy.

In August 1548, Mr.. married Anna, daughter of Christian III, King of Denmark and Norway. After the death of Moritz, . not leave the male offspring (July 1553), . his successor and united under his rule not only inherited the land Albertino (Duchy of Saxon), . and possession of disgraced John Frederick (I) Magnanimous, . Elector of Saxony, . who moved to Moritz, along with kurfyursheskim title under the terms of Wittenberg's surrender (May 1547),
.

Despite the fact that the contract in Naumburg (February 1554) A. recognized for John-Frederick title of "Elector who was born and gave him as a separate duchy of Altenburg, . Eisenberg, . Sachsenburg and Herbislebena for a formal rejection of kurfyursheskogo title, . - Fear, . that Ernestina renew their dynastic claims, . left him,
. But the inner politics. determined by two principles: first, . he sought a rapprochement with the Habsburgs-winners, . which Albertine had to kurfyursheskim dignity, . secondly, . advocated the settlement of religious conflict, . Conscious, . that renewed, . This conflict could serve as a convenient excuse for Ernestine dynastic revenge,
. He supported the conclusion of the Augsburg religious peace (September 1555).

Fierce disputes over dogma Lutheranism between its different areas only exacerbates the split between Albertine and Ernestine: in particular, the successor to John Frederick the Magnanimous (mind. in 1554) John Frederick II Medium, . Duke of Saxony has used them against A.: he patronized the Jena professor of theology Matthew Frankovichu, . better known as Flatsy Illyrian (1520-1575), . Adept strictly Lutheran views, . while the Elector, . faithful to its policy of compromise, . inclined to support the supporters of Philip Melanchthon (filippistov or kriptokalvinistov), ,


. Then John Frederick II defended Grumbaha Wilhelm von (1503-1567), . rebellious imperial knight from Franconia, . which is financed by France as head of the noble movement, . intended to make an instrument of their designs, . against Albertine,
. On the suppression of the uprising Grumbaha (t. called. "grumbahovoy Troubles, 1563-67 gg.) execution and disgrace, laid upon his patron John Frederick II, Emperor authorized A. After a brief siege, Mr.. Gotha (Gotha War, 1567) A. captured both; Grumbah was executed, and John Frederick II was sentenced to life imprisonment. Although A. long time officially recognized the doctrine, promote kriptokalvinistami, but their attempt to plant in Saxony Calvinism in pure met by a. determined resistance - mainly because that in it he saw undermining the main concept, worked out the terms of the Augsburg Peace ( "cujus regio, ejus religio" - whose country, and that faith), and, consequently, their dynastic rights. Program Document crypto-Calvinists "Explaining the doctrine of communion of the Lord" ( "Explicatio perspicua de coena Domini", 1574), where the essence of St.. Communion was treated in the "Geneva" spirit, Elector condemned, and the leaders of the movement for reform of the Calvinist subjected to severe punishment, then under the auspices of a. been drawn up "Formula of Concord" (Formula Concordizh, 1577, finally released in 1580), which restored the dogma of orthodox Lutheranism.

During all this time, the traditional orientation proimperatorskaya A. not undergone any major changes, . Although the marriage of his daughter (1568) with kurprintsem John-Casimir, . future John-Casimir, . Elector Palatine, . seemed, . could serve as collateral for its transition into the hostile camp of the Habsburgs, though, . seeing the political advantage for themselves or in assisting the rebels Netherlands, . no links with the French Protestants (Huguenots), . He soon took his former position,
. As the guardian of their young relatives, sons, John William, Duke of Saxony, he extended his tenure through the lands belonging to the T. called. "gennebergskogo inheritance". A special merit. up its internal reforms.

He reorganized the management of finance, has streamlined the monetary circulation, through the publication in April 1572, Mr.. "Saxon Constitution" - a code, combining both starogermanskie legal rules and provisions of Roman law - introduced a number of improvements in the judiciary and public administration system. He was an initiator of reforms in the field of science and education, which affected primarily the universities of Dresden and Leipzig, where they were discovered new faculty, revised syllabus and t. d.

Significant recovery achieved with it agriculture, industry, commerce, mining has. A. Saxony has attracted immigrants to the Netherlands dispensation woolen and cotton manufactures, . patronize fairs in Leipzig, and has published a small work, . devoted to agriculture ( "Kunstlich Obst-und Gartenbuchlein"),
. After the death of Anna kurfyurstiny (October 1585), which for thirty-seven years of marriage gave birth to fifteen children (of whom only four survived the father) - A. married a second time (January 1586) to Agnes, Hedwig, the daughter of a thirteen-Joachim-Ernst, Prince Angaltskogo, but died as early as next month, and was buried in the Cathedral of Freiberg. Inherited a. His eldest son, Christian I.




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