Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus)( Roman Emperor)
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Biography Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus)
(ca. 212/214-275) - Roman Emperor. Occurred from the base things of the family (perhaps a family column) on the one reportedly was a native of Sirmium in Pannonia, on the other - Dacia, on the third - Moesia (all three versions, Fl Vopisk, ABP., III, 1-2).
Moved into military service, participated in the Germanic campaigns of Emperor Valerian. Historians Aurelius Victor and Zonaras reported that in 268 g. He was in a conspiracy against the emperor Gallienus. When Claudius II Gotha was the chief of cavalry, in the future, having command of the troops in Thrace and Illyria, fought with the Goths on the Danube. After the death of Claudius II legions proclaimed Sirma A. emperor (in 270 g., probably in the spring), while in Italy even before he was elected Kvintill, one brother Claudius, however, soon died. A. ready to continue fighting, drove them out of Moesia, the Danube in Dacia, where they were later defeated them (autumn 271), but Dacia was lost to them.
In 270-71 he. He also defeated Svevo and Sarmatians, conducted a successful war against the Alamanni, threatened Italy, defeated Marcomanni on the river. Titsine and managed to restore the Danube and Rhine borders of the empire. In the summer of 271 g. began the construction of t. called. "Avrelianovoy wall" to protect against possible attacks in Rome (it was completed by Emperor breakdown and preserved until the present). At the beginning of 272 g. A commander. The sample is able to expel the troops from Egypt, Palmyra Queen Zenobia, . one of the "thirty tyrants", . usurped the imperial power in the East, . then take Antioch, in the spring of that year he undertook a trip to Palmyra, . defeated Zenobia and took her into captivity in the future as a prisoner, she participated with the subjugated "Gallic emperor" Tetricus, . in a magnificent triumph, . And that,
. celebrated in Rome in 274 g.
From the reign of usurpers A. along with Tetricus known as companies, merchant from Seleucia revolted in Egypt. - After a campaign Palmyra A. defeated on the Danube, who invaded the empire of carp, and the Senate in the memory of this victory meant to give him the nickname Karpskogo, but "it is said, sent a joking response:" What is lacking just that you called me yet Karpisklom ". Everyone knows that karpiskl - is a special kind of shoes. This nickname seemed ugly, while he had already called Gotha, Sarmatskys, Armenian, Parthian and Adiabenskim "(Flavius Vopisk, ABP., XXX, 4-5).
During the restoration of the unity of the empire, he was also awarded the title "Restitutor orbis". He was the first Roman emperors, who wore a tiara and has the official title "dominus et deus" ( "lord and god"). A. held a series of reforms aimed at stabilizing the economic situation in the State. In private life he was noted for modesty, but do not let the Romans to show their wealth: "Clothes made of pure silk, he himself did not have ... and other [relatives - Auto.] did not give to wear. When my wife [Ulpe Severina - Auto.] Requested him to allow her to have one Greek crimson silk cloak, he replied: "You shall ensure that a thread was valued its weight in gold" - the fact is that at that time was worth a pound of silk a pound of gold ...
He is willing to allow use of gold ornaments and glasses. In addition, it allowed individuals to have a ceremonial chariot, lined with silver, whereas previously were carts lined with copper and ivory. He gave the right matron wearing scarlet tunics and other garments ... He first gave the right of ordinary soldiers to wear gold buckles ... "(ibid., XLV, 4-5, XLVI, 2-5). At the end of 274 g. He launched a military expedition against the Persians, . but in the course of its (autumn 275) was killed on the way between Heracleia and Byzantium own proximity to the instigation of the Imperial clerk (Fl Vopisk calls him Mnesteem, . Zosima - Eros), . which, . himself for fear of punishment for some offense, . provoked a conspiracy to, . that showed them their names in the forged list of convicts on the death of the emperor.,