AYZENYUK Hans Jurgen (Eysenck)( English psychologist)
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Biography AYZENYUK Hans Jurgen (Eysenck)
(genus. 4/3/1916 g.) - English psychologist, one of the leaders in the areas of biological psychology, the creator of the factor theory of personality. Educated at London University (Doctor of Philosophy and Sociology). Since 1939. by 1945. worked as an experimental psychologist at the hospital Mill Hill Emergency, from 1946. by 1955. it - the head of the Department of Psychology based at the Institute of Psychiatry hospitals Maudsli and Betlem, with 1955. by 1983. - Professor of the Institute of Psychology, University of London, and since 1983. present - professor emeritus of psychology.
Founder and editor of the magazines 'Personality and Individual Differences' and 'Behaviour Research and Therapy'. He began his studies of basic personality traits by analyzing the results of psychiatric examination, which includes descriptions of psychiatric symptoms, a contingent of soldiers - groups of healthy and recognized neurotic. As a result of this analysis has been allocated 39 variables, . which data groups were significantly different, and factor analysis which yielded four factors, . including the factors of extraversion-introversion and neuroticism ( 'Dimensions of Personality', . L,
. 1947). As a methodological basis Eysenck was guided by the understanding of the psychodynamic personality traits as resulting from genetically determined and ultimately biochemical processes ( 'The Scientific Study of Personality', L., 1952). Initially, he interpreted the extraversion-introversion on the ratio of excitation and inhibition: for extroverts characteristic slow formation of excitation, . his weakness and rapid formation of reactive inhibition, . its strength and stability, . for introverts same - rapid formation of excitation, . its strength (this is connected with the best education they have conditioned reflexes and their training) and the slow formation of reactive inhibition, . weakness and low resistance,
. As neuroticism, . Eysenck believed that, . that neurotic symptoms are reflexes, . and behavior, . constitutes avoidance conditioned reflex stimulus (a signal of danger), and thus eliminates anxiety, . is self-worth.,
. In this paper, 'The biological basis of individuality' ( 'The Biological Basis of Personality', . Spriengfield, . 1967) Eysenck has proposed the following interpretation of these two personality factors: the high degree of introversion corresponds to lowering the threshold of activation of the reticular formation, . therefore introverts have higher arousal in response to external stimuli, . a high degree of neuroticism corresponds to lowering the threshold for activation of the limbic system, . so they have increased emotional reactivity in response to events in the internal environment of the organism, . particularly, . fluctuations in the needs,
. As a result, further studies using factor analysis Eysenck came to the formulation of 'three-factor theory of personality'.
. This theory is based on the definition of personality traits as a way of behavior in certain vital areas: on the lower level of analysis are considered isolated acts in specific situations (eg, . manifested in the present manner to enter into conversation with a stranger) on the second level - often repeated, . habitual behavior in similar situations in life meaningful, . is - the usual reaction, . diagnosed as superficial features, the third level of analysis reveals, . that repetitive behaviors can be combined in some, . meaningful uniquely defines a set of, . factors of first order (usually the case in the company, . tendency to actively engage in conversation and pr,
. give grounds to postulate the existence of such characteristics as sociability), and finally, . the fourth level of analysis of content specific complexes themselves are combined in a second-order factors, . or types, , . responsiveness, . plasticity, etc., . ), . but based on the biological characteristics,
. At the level of second-order factors of Eysenck identified three personality dimensions: psihotizm (P), extraversion (E) and neuroticism (N), which are viewed as genetically determined activity of the CNS, indicating their status traits of temperament.
. In a great number of applied research, . Eysenck who has to prove his theory, . often together with specialists in relevant fields, . has shown the importance of differences in these factors in crime statistics, . with mental illnesses, . predisposition to accidents, . CAREER PLANNING, . in the severity level of achievement, . sport, . in sexual behavior, etc.,
. So, . particularly, . shown, . that the factors of extraversion and neuroticism are well differentiated two types of neurotic disorders: hysterical neurosis, . which is observed in individuals choleric temperament (unstable extroverts) and obsessive-compulsive disorder - persons with melancholic temperament (unstable introverts),
. Also, he held numerous factor-analytic studies of various psychological processes - memory, intelligence, social attitudes.
. On the basis of 'three-factor model of personality' they were created psychodiagnostic technique EPI ( 'Manual of the Eysenck Personality Inventory' (Joint
. with Eysenck BG), L., 1964) and EPQ, which continued the series of previously established - MMQ, MPI ( 'Manual of the Maudsley Personality Inventory', L., 1959).
. Eysenck - one of the authors 'three-phase theory of neurosis' - a conceptual model describing the development of neurosis as a system of learned behavioral responses ( 'The Causes and Cures of Neuroses' (Joint
. with Rachmann S.), L., 1965), based on this behavioral techniques have been developed psychological adjustment of personality, in particular one of the variations of aversion therapy and neurosis, constitution and personality