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Aristotle

( Greek philosopher)

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Biography Aristotle
photo Aristotle
(384-322. BC. e.) - Greek philosopher, founder of the psychological system, integrated achievements of ancient thought for centuries and has become central to the various directions in the understanding of mental activity. The principles and main concepts of the system outlined in his treatise 'On the soul', its important provisions are contained in other writings A. ( 'Ethics', 'Rhetoric', 'Metaphysics', 'History of Animals'). In contrast to notions of the soul as a special early. taught that the soul of the living body can not be separated, because it is its form, manner of its organization. This approach has given psychology a. biological orientation. As a principle of life and development, the soul can not be divided into parts, but is manifested in the form of several functions (abilities) or activities that make up a special genetic series. Vegetative ( 'feeding') function of the soul is specific to plants, feeling and driving functions - for animals, reasonable - for a person. Higher functions arise through the lower, so the functions of the soul are the levels of its evolution. A. belongs to the division of the senses into five categories. In addition to transmitting certain sensible qualities of things organs (vision, hearing, etc.), he singled out the 'general chuvstvilische' to-Roe allows to perceive common to many objects properties (size, number). A. demarcate the area of representations ( 'fantasy') from the perception, considering it to mediate between the sensual and rational knowledge. Images of 'imagination' are a prerequisite for thinking. Explaining the processes of memory, and. developed the concept of association by similarity, contiguity, and contrast and solid mechanism of these associations. The driving force of behavior was considered the expressed desires of the internal activity of the body and paired with a sense of pleasure or displeasure. Actions resulting in the pleasure, the body tends to reproduce, which makes it a sense acts as a factor in learning. Each situation corresponds to a certain (correct) affective reactions associated with the act. Man goes wrong, when this reaction is either excessive or insufficient. The best way to conduct (and affective response) is necessary to develop experience, the study of other and himself. Due to the nature of actions is formed. In explaining the process of learning a. advanced the notion of a special form of intellectual activity of man, marked them by the term 'nous' (mind). This form is a creative activity, leading to general concepts, was opposed to all others and interpreted as meaning that, depending upon the body, is introduced to the psychophysical person from outside the organization in the form of 'divine reason'. A. belongs to distinguish two types of intelligence: a theoretical and practical. The latter is a special type of thinking, since it serves as an effective regulation of the real action, not just the acquisition of knowledge. A. applied genetic and objective methods for the study of specific mental and ethical traits of behavior. Eden A. stimulated the development of psychological thought subsequent periods.





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Aristotle, photo, biography
Aristotle, photo, biography Aristotle  Greek philosopher, photo, biography
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