Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz( The German philosopher, mathematician, linguist)
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Biography Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Born July 1, 1646 in Leipzig. His father, a professor of moral philosophy at Leipzig University, died when his son was six years old. Leibniz entered the University of Leipzig at age 15, . graduated in 1663, . thesis for a bachelor's degree on the principle of individuation (Disputatio metaphysica de principio individui), . which contains in embryo many of the later ideas of the philosopher,
. In 1663-1666 studied law at Jena and published work on legal education. Through the last was observed by Baron Boyneburgom Elector and Archbishop of Mainz, who received him at the service. Archbishop of very dedicated to preserving peace within the borders of the Holy Roman Empire, as well as between Germany and its neighbors. Leibniz fully immersed in plans for the Archbishop. He also sought a rational basis of the Christian religion is acceptable to Protestants and Catholics.
The most serious threat to peace in Europe at that time was Louis XIV. Leibniz presented a plan for the conquest of the King of Egypt, saying that such a conquest more befits the greatness of the Christian monarch, than the war with small and minor European countries. The plan was so well thought out that Napoleon is believed to be acquainted with him in the archives before you send an expedition to Egypt. In 1672, Leibniz was summoned to Paris to explain the plan, and he spent four years. He failed to see Louis, but he became acquainted with the philosophers and scientists as N. Malebranche, A. Arnaud, H. Huygens. Leibniz also invented a calculating machine, which surpassed Pascal machine, as could extract roots, to build a power, multiply and divide. In 1673 he went to London, met with Boyle and Oldenburg, demonstrated the effect of his car to the Royal Society, which then elected him a member of.
In 1673 the Archbishop of Mainz died. In 1676, for lack of space, more suited to his tastes and abilities, Leibnitz entered the service of a librarian to the Duke of Brunswick. On the way to Hanover, Leibniz stopped in for a month in Amsterdam, having read everything written B. Spinoza - anything to convince to give print. In the end he managed to meet with Spinoza and discuss with him his ideas. This was the last direct contact with their fellow Leibniz on philosophical shop. From that time until his death he was in Hanover, going abroad only in connection with his research on the history of the dynasty Brunswick. He persuaded the King of Prussia to establish a scientific academy in Berlin and became its first president, in 1700 he was granted the post of imperial adviser and Baron.
In the later period, Leibniz was involved in the notorious dispute with Newton's friends on primacy in the invention of the infinitesimal calculus. There is no doubt that Leibniz and Newton worked on this calculus in parallel and that in London, Leibniz met mathematicians familiar with the work, and Newton, and J. Barrow. What is required to Newton and Leibniz as they are both obliged to Barrow - can only guess. It is known that Newton had given the wording of calculation, the method of 'fluxions', no later than 1665, although published his results many years later. Then all the mathematics worked on this set of problems and be aware of the results obtained in the addition of infinitesimal. There is nothing improbable in the simultaneous and independent open calculus, . Leibniz certainly to be commended as the first, . who used, infinitesimal as the differences and developed symbolism, . be so easy, . that its use today,
Bad luck and Leibniz in regard to the recognition of its original logic of ideas, most valuable today. Only 20 in. these ideas became generally known, the results of Leibniz had rediscovered anew, and his own work was buried in piles of manuscripts of the royal library at Hanover. By the end of the life of Leibniz forgot about it. Kurfyurstina Sofia and her daughter, Queen of Prussia, Sophia Charlotte, which is valued Leibniz, and through which he wrote many works, died respectively in 1705 and 1714. Also in 1714, George Louis, Duke of Hanover, was called to the English throne. Apparently, he disliked the Leibniz and did not allow him to accompany him, along with the court in London, ordered to continue working as a librarian.
False interpretation of the works of Leibniz, earning him the reputation of 'Lovenix', a man who believes in nothing, and his name is not popular. Health philosopher began to deteriorate, although he continued to work, this period is a brilliant correspondence with S. Clark. Leibniz died in Hanover on Nov. 14, 1716. None of the entourage of the Duke of Hanover did not hold his final journey. Berlin Academy of Sciences, founder and first president of which he was paid no attention to his death, but a year later B. Fontenelle uttered the famous speech in his memory before the members of the Paris Academy of. The latest generation of English philosophers and mathematicians paid tribute to the achievements of Leibniz, offsetting a conscious disregard of his death the Royal Society
. Among the most important works of Leibniz - Discourse on Metaphysics (Discours de mtaphysique, . 1686, . published in 1846); new system of nature and communication between substances, . as well as the relationship, . existing between the soul and body (Systme nouveau de la nature et de la communication des substances, . aussi bien que de l'union qu'il ya entre l 'me et le corps, . 1695); New Essay Concerning Human Understanding (Nouveaux essais sur l'entendement humain par l'auteur du systme de l'harmonie prtablie, . 1704, . publ,
. in 1765); Experiments theodicy on the goodness of God, human freedom and the beginning of evil (Essais de thodice sur la bont de Dieu, la libert de l'homme et l'origine du mal, 1710); Monadology (La Monadologie, 1714).
Leibniz put forward such a comprehensive and rationally constructed a metaphysical system that, according to contemporary philosophers, it can be represented as a system of logical principles. Today no one can do in the analysis of individuality without the famous Leibnizian principle of identity of indistinguishable, now give him the status of the logical principle, but Leibniz himself believed his truth about the world. Similarly, the relational interpretation of space and time, and an analysis of the substance as a carrier of energy are the foundation for the development of concepts of mechanics
. Leibniz introduced the notion of the mechanics of kinetic energy, and he also believed that the concept of passive matter, existing in absolute space and composed of indivisible atoms, is unsatisfactory both from a scientific and a metaphysical point of view
. Inertia is the force itself: granting motion passive matter should be classified as miracles. Moreover, the very idea of atoms of matter is absurd: if they are extended, the divisible, if not extended, it can not be the atoms of matter. The only substance to be active unit, simple, immaterial, there is no space or time. Leibniz called this simple substance monads. Because they do not have the parts, it can get there only through the creation and decay only through the annihilation. Monads are not able to influence one another. Since the only significant feature of the monad is its activity, all monads are similar and differ only in degree of activity. There are an infinite number of monads, on its lower levels - the monad, having the appearance of substance, although none of the monad can not be completely inert. At the top of the stairs is God - the most active of the monads.
Intrinsic activity of the monad is the perception, or 'mirror', and every monad is a reflection of all other monads. These perceptions are valid, since monads are created so that their states are in harmony with each other. This 'pre-established harmony' (harmonia praestabilita) proved the impossibility of interaction between monads and also the relevance of perception. Relationship between the soul and the totality of the monads constituting the body - just one of the cases reflect the general. The history of each of the monads is the deployment of its state according to its own inner principle. Space is the manifestation of the order of possible co-existence ', and the time -' the order of unstable opportunities'. Space and time, . how to understand the mathematics, . are abstractions, their continuity is a manifestation of true continuity, . owned a number of real beings and their razvetyvayuschihsya states, and their infinite divisibility is the actual infinity of real beings,
. Each monad is unique in that its 'place' in the world is a place in an infinite number of monads, and its properties are functions of this site. Monad reflects the world it is from this place, so it is impossible that there are two 'indistinguishable' creatures that would not coincide. Hence - the identity of indiscernible.
In support of these conclusions, based on the metaphysical and scientific considerations, Leibniz argues, which included an appeal to the nature of judgments of truth and falsity. Just as there is no interaction between monads, . does not exist and relative judgments, all judgments are subject-predicate form, . and as every monad contains all of their state, . so every true statement already contains the predicate in the subject,
. A logical calculus of Leibniz suggests, . in its most satisfactory formulation of any true statement will have a complicated name as the subject and one or more elements of this complex name as a predicate, . example 'ABC is A', . or 'ABC is AB', . etc.,
. Any false proposition will be an obvious absurdity: 'ABC is not an A' or 'ABC is not an AB' etc.. This view is closely connected with the case throughout the life of Leibniz - the search language, characteristica universalis, in which it was possible to express all the truth and in which the names would show 'of' means of objects. These truths then would find their place in the encyclopedia of all knowledge, and all discussion would be unnecessary - the arguments have given way to place computing c using 'universal calculus'.
Arnaud, objecting to Leibniz argued that if the notion of any individual contains everything that ever will find being, then human freedom is transformed into a myth, and God loses omnipotence. Leibniz answered, . that God made a free choice, . when he created Adam and thus all subsequent, . embodied in the actual condition of all the free and spontaneous human action and adapting to these actions, all other conditions of existence in the universe,
. Thus, the necessity of events in the world is not absolute, but conditional. Moreover, since the monad naturally choose the best according to how distinct is their perception, this world is the best of all possible worlds. It embodies the greatest number of diversity, . compatible with the order, . that is the metaphysical perfection, . and because it created an all-merciful, . omnipotent and Wiseman being, . metaphysical and moral perfection meets perfection of the world,
In the system of Leibniz, there is a fundamental contradiction which manifests itself at all levels. Leibniz argued that there are two kinds of truths: the necessary truth of reason, check that you can use the principle of contradiction, and the occasional truth of fact, verification of which must be based on the principle of sufficient reason. At the same time, he believed that every truth about the world is analytical and from any state of any monad, if we are able to sufficiently penetrate into it, can deduce the state of the entire universe. It is true that only God has the ability to comprehend this, and there would be no problem if Leibniz would say that the randomness associated with incomplete knowledge. However, he insisted on the fundamental difference between random truths about the real world and the necessary truths that are true in all possible worlds. The latter depends on the intellect of God, but not from his will, the first true, because that was the will of God,. True statements about the world constitute a system, so that none of these allegations can not be false, if the others are true, but ultimately it is true that it is - the system of true statements about the real world. There is only one must be a true statement of existence - God, the necessary being, there. Suggest the opposite - it means to assume a deliberate absurdity - that being, possessing all the perfections in the highest degree, deprived of one of the perfections, namely the existence. Leibniz recognizes that there is not a predicate of finite beings, that nothing is added to the concept of 'Adam', when we say that the concept of actual. The fact that God exists, belongs only to the concept of Him.
This is a priori evidence strengthens the argument that the mind of God is a 'place', in which reside necessary truths. This world 'makes true' random truth, which is objectively opposed to the knowledge of God, eternal truths. Besides, . though the universe itself is complete and everything should be so, . how it is in fact, . only because, . that one of the parts of the universe is such, . what it is, . none of its parts do not contain the basis for its existence,
. The universe requires a creative and supportive causes, ie. essential substance, which contains the basis of his own existence. It is in this moment of modern thinkers disagree with Leibniz. Charles Morris in the scientific empiricism as summed up their attitude: 'rationalist metaphysics of Leibniz, . generated by a simple transformation of formal logic in metaphysics without the criterion of empirical significance, . the modern view is not a necessary logical consequence of his cosmological doctrine ',
. In other words, Leibniz's system of concepts, no matter how interesting it is, remains just a system of concepts, and no analysis of these concepts can not give us knowledge about the real world.