Mc Dugall (McDougall), William( Anglo-American psychologist)
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Biography Mc Dugall (McDougall), William
(22.6.1871, Chadderton, Lancashire - 28.11.1938, Durham, North Carolina) - Anglo-American psychologist, founder gormicheskoy psychology.
After graduating in 1890. Owen's College in Manchester, he studied at the College of SW. John Cambridge, graduating in 1894. (BA, 1898), after which a few years, from 1894. by 1898. studied medicine at the hospital Sv. Thomas in London.
In 1898, Mr.. accompanied a group of specialists of the Cambridge anthropological expedition to Australia and the Torres Strait islands, where carried out psychological diagnosis of local residents. On his return held research fellow at G.E. Mueller at the University of Gottingen on color vision (1900). Since 1901. by 1904. Mc Dugall worked as an assistant in the experimental laboratory at University College in London, then in 1904. to 1920, he was - a teacher of mental philosophy at Oxford University (at that time he studied CH.E. Spearman), in 1908. defended his master's thesis here, and wrote several books, . in particular, 'Physiological Psychology', . 1905, . and 'Body and Mind: A History and Defense of Animism', . 1911, . which tried to prove the heritability of acquired traits and explain the action of inhibition outflow of nervous energy.,
. In 1920, Mr.
. Mc Dugall moved from England to the United States, where as a professor has succeeded Mr.. Munsterberg at Harvard University. Failing to find support for his ideas at Harvard, Mac-Dugall moved in 1927. Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, where he became dean of the Faculty of Psychology.
. Emphatically declared itself as an original thinker as early as 1908, when she came one of the most important of his works ( 'An introduction to social psychology', L, 1908, in Russian
. Lane. 'The main problems of social psychology', Moscow, 1916), where he formulated the basic principles of human social behavior. This work formed the basis of his 'gormicheskoy psychology' as part of a dynamic psychology and its emphasis on the modification of mental processes and their energy through. At the same time his psychology he deliberately contrasted the theories of learning and, in particular, representations made by J. Watson on the instincts (1913): skill, according to Mac-Dugall by itself is not driving the behavior and does not target him.
. As the main driving forces of human behavior he considered irrational, instinctual drives (his understanding of instinct, due to vagueness, prompting criticism professionals ethology, in particular
. Lawrence). The basis of behavior is of interest due to an innate instinctual drives, which only finds its expression in skill and maintained by various mechanisms of behavior. Any organic body are born with a certain vital energy supplies and distribution form (discharge) which rigidly predetermined repertoire of instincts. Once the initial pulse is determined as to these or other purposes motives, they are expressed in appropriate physical devices.
, . having the incentive and control functions, . comprise a certain sequence of the process of information processing, . emotional arousal and readiness for motor action,
. Thus it is the psycho-physical predisposition of the individual that makes any perceived, testing of this specific emotional excitement and momentum for action.
. Originally singled out 12 kinds of instincts: the flight (fear), aversion (disgust), curiosity (surprise) - back in 1908
. He pointed to the existence of cognitive motivation in higher primates, . - Aggressiveness (anger), . self-effacement (confusion), . assertiveness (inspiration), . parental instinct (tenderness), . the instinct of procreation, . Food instinct, . herd instinct, . instinct of acquisitiveness, . instinct of creation.,
. In his view, the basic instincts are directly linked with the appropriate emotions as internal instincts are an expression of emotions.
. Based on the teachings of H
. Darwin on the emotions, to interpret them as the affective aspect of the instinctive process. Each primary pulse corresponds to a specific emotion: the impulse to flee due to fear, curiosity - to wonder, pugnacity - with anger, parental instinct - with tenderness. Criticized the James-Lange theory, because in it the center of attention was placed sensory component of emotions and ignored the incentive. There are two primary and fundamental forms of feeling: pleasure and pain, directly associated with a particular aspiration. Some emotions can be summed up in the complex feelings, due to experience and learning in interaction with certain objects or situations that are trapped in cognitive and emotional evaluation. Among the senses considered as the most important so-called 'egoticheskoe' associated with self-consciousness. The experience of happiness is due, in his opinion, the harmonious alignment of all the feelings and actions in the context of the unity of personality.
. Mc Dugall - one of the pioneer of social-psychological research, has introduced the very concept of 'social psychology' (1908)
. Tried to give a scientific interpretation of processes in social groups: treated social need as the herd instinct, . and group communication - as the organization of a system of interacting energies of all the members of these groups ( 'soul group'), . developed the idea of super-national soul ( 'The group mind', . Cambridge, . 1920).,
. Like its predecessor, U
. James, Mc Dugall had expressed interest in the occult scientific phenomena. In 1927, Mr.. he, with the participation of J. Raina, organized at Duke University first parapsychological laboratory. We proceed from the understanding of psychic energy as the same effective as physical ( 'The Frotiers of Psychology', L., 1934).
. On this basis, again tried to approach the problem of identity and explain the clinical material on the phenomenon of 'multiple personality', here he came to the understanding of personality as a system of thinking and motivated monads
. In general, his work in this area have given new impetus to research the individual, particularly its motivational characteristics (G.U. Allport, GA. Murray, R.B. Kettle, S. Lersh). Literature.