Kepler, Johannes( The great German astronomer and mathematician)
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Biography Kepler, Johannes


Johannes Kepler (Johannes Kepler) (15711630)  the great German astronomer and mathematician. He discovered the three basic movements of the planets, has invented an optical system used in particular in modern refractor, prepared the establishment of differential, integral and variational calculus in mathematics. . Johannes Kepler was born in Weil der Stadt in southern Germany in a poor Protestant family . After studying in convent school in 1596, Mr.. entered the seminary at Tubingen Academy (later University). During these years he became acquainted with the heliocentric system of N. Copernicus. The end of the Academy in 1593, Mr.. Kepler, accused of free thought, was not admitted to the theological career, and was given the position of school mathematics teacher. In 1600, Mr.. He arrived in Prague to the famous astronomer T. Braga, after whose death it received submissions mnogchislennyh observations. Kepler wrote many scientific papers and articles. The most important of his essay  "New Astronomy" (1609), examines the movement of Mars from observations of T. Braga and containing the first two laws of planetary motion. In the essay "Harmony of the World" (1619) Kepler formulated the third law, combining the theory of motion of all planets in a harmonious whole. Sun, occupying one of the focuses of the elliptical orbit of the planet, is, according to Kepler, a source of strength, driving the planet. He made a fair guess about the existence of gravitation between celestial bodies and explained the ebb and flow of Earth's oceans influence of the Moon. The compiled on the basis of observations by Kepler Brahe "Rudolf the table" (1627) made it possible to calculate any moment of time the position of the planet with high accuracy for the age. In this paper, "Reducing Kopernikovoi Astronomy" (16181622) Kepler described the theory and methods of predicting solar and lunar eclipses. His studies of optics described in the book "Supplement to Vitello" (1604) and "Dioptrics" (1611). Remarkable mathematical ability Kepler apparent, particularly in the derivation of formulas for determining the volume of a manybody rotation. Kepler's manuscripts were acquired by the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences and are now kept in Russia in St. Petersburg.
