Chetverikov Sergei Sergeevich( The eminent Russian biologist)
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Biography Chetverikov Sergei Sergeevich
(1880-1959) - an outstanding Russian biologist, an evolutionary geneticist, was born on April 24 (6 May) 1880. in Moscow in the family factory - the owner of fulling mills. His father, Sergei, was educated, liberal-minded man. His mother, Maria, came from a family Alexeyev. Her brother, Nikolai Alexeyev, a long time was the mayor of Moscow, and his cousin Konstantin Sergeyevich Alexeyev (Stanislavsky) - founder of the Moscow Art Theater.
. Prokofiev's mother was home schooled, she knew three European languages, read a lot
. Children in the family cultivate respect to any labor. Tutor, a passionate naturalist, taught children to communicate with nature, observation, and respect for all living things. Love of nature Sergei carried through his life.
Sergey has been defined in the private real school, which brilliantly graduated in 1897. Contrary to the wishes of his father in 1900. He joined the Department of natural physical and mathematical faculty of Moscow University. At university he became interested in the biology of butterflies (lepidopterist) and in 1902. published the first scientific work. In the same year he made his first major zoological expeditions to the PP. Sushkina, during which the collecting butterflies Minusinskogo Territory and Western Sayan, and in 1904. participated in the expedition to the lake and the mountain ridge Zaisan Tarbagatai.
In 1905, Mr.. published his article on additions to the fauna of butterflies in Moscow Province. In the same year came a very interesting work called 'Waves of life', which was given to the analysis of fluctuations of populations of organisms, and in 1906. published 'List of butterflies from the shores of the Aral Sea'.
At the time of graduation, Prokofiev was already well-known researcher, author of ten articles of interest not only for specialists, but also for biologists generalist.
After graduation SS. Chetverikov was left 'to prepare for a professorship' at the department of comparative anatomy professor MA. Menzbira. From 1909 to 1918. Chetverikov taught entomology at the University for Women.
As the object of study at Master's thesis was selected freshwater isopod crayfish - water donkey (Asellus aquaticus L.). In connection with this work, published in German in 1910. in 'Bulletin of Moscow Society of Naturalists' academic B.L. Astaurov wrote: 'There is no doubt that it is the study of the structure of the crayfish has led it to broad generalizations about the role of evolution in the exoskeletons of arthropods. This work opened the way for him to professors'. In 1911, Mr.. SS. Chetverikov successfully defended his dissertation, and he was awarded a Master's degree Zoology.
During the First World War and revolution Sergei deals with general theoretical problems of biology, evolutionary theory and genetics, continued to study butterflies, mainly east of the Crimea. Furthermore, in those years Chetverikov spent much organizational work on the establishment of the Moscow Entomological Society.
In 1919, Mr.. SS. Chetverikov began working at Moscow State University as assistant professor in the Department of Experimental Zoology, headed by NK. Koltsov. Along with a large workshop on Experimental Zoology Sergey led courses biometrics and genetics. Do not leave teaching at MSU in 1921. SS. Chetverikov becomes head of the department of Genetics, Institute of Experimental Biology.
In 1926, Mr.. he published an article 'On some points of the evolutionary process from the standpoint of modern genetics', where it was shown that between genetics and evolutionary theory, there is no contradiction. In contrast, genetic data should be the basis of the theory of variation and a key to understanding the evolution. Chetverikov demonstrated that mutations (genovariatsii) in natural populations of animals do not disappear, can accumulate in a hidden (heterozygous) state, and provide material for variation and natural selection. Thus Chetverikov able to link evolutionary theory of Darwin and the laws of heredity established by genetics. Thus was laid the foundation of modern synthetic theory of evolution. This work is considered a milestone in the development of evolutionary theory. It gave rise to a new branch of science - evolutionary (and population) genetics - and put the name of SS. Chetverikov in a row with the names of the most eminent biologists.
As the object Chetverikov used natural populations of fruit flies Drosophila. The results of the first conducted in this area of research SS. Chetverikov reported in 1927. at the V International Congress of Genetics in Berlin. The report caused a sensation and was greeted with great interest, as well as other reports of Soviet geneticists on the important issues of genetics and breeding. Soviet Genetics has a leading position in this forum.
Working at the Institute of Experimental Biology, Sergei proved himself not only as an outstanding scientist, a geneticist, but also a great organizer and lead author. He managed to unite employees in a friendly team of like-minded people, create their own scientific school. Among his pupils were B.L. Astaurov, NP. Dubinin, NK. Belyaev, SM. Gershenzon, AN. Promptov, P.F. Rokitskii, NV. Timofeev-Resovskii, EA. Timofeeva-Resovskaya (Fidler), VP. Efroimson, DD. Romashov E.I. Balkashinov etc..
In 1929, Mr.. SS. Chetverikov was arrested and exiled for three years in the Sverdlovsk. Without permission to return to Moscow, he in 1932. moved to Vladimir, where he teaches in Uchkombove - Training Combine to combat agricultural pests, and then in the agricultural college.
From 1935 to 1948. SS. Chetverikov headed the Department of Genetics and Breeding of Gorky State University.
In wartime, Sergei was elected Dean of the Faculty. In 1944, Mr.. He received a government award 'Honor', and later a medal "For Valiant Labor in the Great Patriotic War '. In 1945, Mr.. was approved in the degree of Doctor of Biological Sciences without defending a thesis.
Delegation of Soviet geneticists at the V International Congress in Berlin (1927)
Left to right: SS. Chetverikov, A.S. Serebrovsky, G.D. Karpechenko, NI. Vavilov
In August 1948, after a session of Agricultural Sciences and decisions on restructuring the teaching of biological sciences, SS. Chetverikov left the university. Despite the progressive deterioration of vision, engaged in the research of butterflies.
In the second half of the 1950. began the revival of Soviet biological science. In early 1957,. All-Union Entomological Society chose SS. Chetverikov an honorary member. In 1959, Mr.. German Academy of Natural Sciences 'Leopoldina' invited him to the commemorative meeting marking the 100 anniversary edition of Darwin's 'Origin of Species', but because of illness he was unable to travel to Germany. At the anniversary congress in April 1959. 18 biologists have been awarded the Medal of Honor 'Plaketta Darwin' for the development and strengthening of the theory of evolution and genetics. Among the awardees were SS. Chetverikov, his disciples NP. NV Dubinin. Timofeev-Resovskii, as well as academic I.I. Schmalhausen.
An outstanding role in the development of problems of population genetics played a disciple of SS. Chetverikov NV. Timofeev-Resovskii. Working in Berlin, he was from 1926 to 1941. published a long series of works in this field of science. In 1927, Mr.. in his article, written jointly with EA. Timofeev-Resovskii the first time in the foreign literature was described content of the underlying article SS. Chetverikov (1926). Similar work in the field of population and evolutionary genetics were carried out by foreign researchers, Fisher, Haldane and Wright in 1930.
One of the most prominent researchers in the field of population genetics F.G. Dobrzhanskii (USA) in their works cited the works of SS. Chetverikov and recognizes the crucial importance for the development of modern genetics and evolutionary theory. He was the first time in 1959. published an abridged English translation of the main labor SS. Chetverikov 'On some points of the evolutionary process from the standpoint of modern genetics'.
The value of work SS. Chetverikov in biology, particularly in the field of population and evolutionary genetics, commensurate with such remarkable discoveries, as the establishment of Mendel's laws and the establishment of the chromosome theory of heredity.