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Arrhenius, Svante August

( Swedish physical chemist)

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Biography Arrhenius, Svante August
(19.11 1859 - 2.x 1927)
Swedish physical chemist, a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (since 1901). Born estate Wijk (near Uppsala). He graduated from the University of Uppsala (1878). In 1881-1883 he. improve education in the Physical Institute of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. In 1884-1885 he. worked at Uppsala University. In 1886. was a scientific mission abroad: in 1886 he worked at the Riga Polytechnic Institute in the laboratory in. F. Ostwald, in 1886 - 1887 he. - At the universities of Wц+rzburg and Graz, in 1888,. - In the University of Amsterdam in the laboratory I. X. Van't Hoff, in 1889, Mr.. - Again at the University of Graz. Since 1891, Mr.. - At Stockholm University (since 1895. - Professor, since 1897, Mr.. - Rector). In 1905 - 1927 he. - Director of the Nobel Institute in Stockholm.

One of the founders of physical chemistry. The main scientific works are devoted to the teachings of the solutions and the kinetics of chemical reactions. Based on their research (1882-1883 gg.), . showed an increase in electrical conductivity and activity of solutions at their dilution, . formulated (1884) found spontaneous decay of the molecules of salts in solution on the charged particles - ions, . that is suggested on the electrolytic dissociation,
. Then carried out (1884-1886 gg.) A new series of studies on the relationship between the chemical properties of electrolyte solutions and their conductivity and made (1887) with a fully grounded theory of electrolytic dissociation, . according to which the activity and the degree of dissociation of electrolytes on the ions decrease with increasing concentration of their solutions,
. Explained (1887), the physical meaning of the correction factor i, introduced by van't Hoff for the correlation of experimental and theoretical values of osmotic pressure, the associated value of this coefficient with the degree of dissociation of the solute. Created the doctrine of izogidrichnosti, developed the theory of hydrolysis of salts. Found exothermic nature of most processes of dissociation of electrolytes and the dependence of the speed and completeness of these processes on temperature. For the first time explained (1889) the essence of the temperature dependence of reaction rate, . put forward the idea of active, . with excess energy and are able to enter into chemical interaction of molecules, . whose number increases exponentially with increasing temperature., . Introduced the concept of activation energy DE and derived an equation depending on the reaction rate constant of molecular collision frequency factor A, . temperature and DE, . became a major in chemical kinetics (Arrhenius equation),
. A number of works devoted to the evolutionary astrophysics.

A member of many scientific academies and scientific societies. Foreign Cor-Cor. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (since 1903). Honorary Member of the USSR (from 1926).

Nobel Prize (1903).


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