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John Dalton

( English chemist and physicist)

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Biography John Dalton
(6 IX 1766 - 27.VII 1844)
English chemist and physicist, member of the Royal Society of London (since 1822). Born in Iglsfilde (Cumberland). Education was independently. In 1781-1793 he. - Mathematics teacher in a school in Kendal, in 1793, Mr.. taught physics and mathematics at New College in Manchester.

Basic scientific research to the years 1800-1803. belong to physics, later - in chemistry. Wires (from 1787) of meteorological observations, investigated the color of the sky, the nature of heat, the refraction and reflection of light. As a result, created the theory of evaporation and mixing of gases. Describe (1794) defect of vision, called color-blindness. Opened the three laws, which constituted the essence of his physical atomism gas mixtures: partial pressures of gases (1801), depending on the expansion of gases at constant pressure on the temperature (1802, regardless of M. L. Gay-Lussac) and the dependence of the solubility of gases from their partial pressures (1803) This work led him to address the problem of correlation of chemical composition and structure of substances. Put forward and substantiated (1803-1804 gg.) Theory of atomic structure, or chemical atomism, which explained the empirical law of the constancy of. Theoretically predicted and discovered (1803) Law of multiple proportions: if two elements form several compounds, the masses of one element, corresponding to one and the same mass as the other, are treated as integers. Compiled (1803) the first table of relative atomic mass of hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, sulfur and phosphorus, taking the atomic mass of hydrogen. Offered (1804) system of chemical symbols for 'simple' and 'complex' atoms. Conducted (with 1808) work aimed at clarifying certain provisions and an explanation of essence of the atomic theory. The author of 'The new system of Chemical Philosophy' (1808-1810 gg.), World-renowned.

A member of many scientific academies and scientific societies.


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