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Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev

( Russian scientist)

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Biography Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev
photo Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev
(8.II 1834 - 2.II 1907)

Russian scientist, Corresponding Member. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (since 1876). He was born in Tobolsk. He graduated from the Chief Pedagogic Institute in St. Petersburg (1855). In 1855-1856 he. - High-school teacher in the Richelieu Lyceum in Odessa. In 1857-1890 he. taught at St. Petersburg University (from 1865. - Professor), while in 1863-1872 he. - Professor of St. Petersburg Institute of Technology. In 1859-1861 he. was a scientific mission in Heidelberg. In 1890, Mr.. left the university because of the conflict with the Minister of Education, which at the time of student unrest has refused to accept a petition from the Mendeleev students. Since 1892. - Scientist-keeper of Depot of exemplary weights and scales, which in 1893. on his initiative, was transformed into the main chamber of weights and measures (from 1893. - Managing).
Scientific work related mainly to the discipline, which is called the general chemistry, and physics, chemical technology, economics, agriculture, metrology, geography, meteorology. Investigated (1854-1856 gg.) Isomorphism phenomena, revealing the relationship between crystal form and chemical composition of compounds, as well as the dependence of the properties of elements on the value of their atomic volumes. Open (1860) 'the temperature of absolute boiling liquids', or critical. Author of the first Russian textbook 'Organic Chemistry' (1861). Working on the work 'Principles of Chemistry', opened (February 1869) is one of the fundamental laws of nature - the periodic law of chemical elements. Developed (1869-1871 gg.) Ideas of periodicity, introduced the concept of place in the periodic system as a combination of its properties in comparison with the properties of other elements. On this basis, corrected the atomic masses of many elements (beryllium, indium, uranium, etc.). Predicted (1870) to exist, calculated atomic mass, and described the properties of the three still open elements - 'ekaalyuminiya' (opened in 1875. and named gallium), 'ekabora' (opened in 1879. and named scandium) and 'ekasilicon' (opened in 1885. and named Germany). Then, predicted the existence of eight elements, including 'dvitellura' - polonium (opened in 1898), 'ekaioda' - astatine (opened in 1942-1943.), 'Dvimargantsa' - Technetium (opened in 1937) 'ekatseziya' - France (opened in 1939). In 1900, Mr.. Mendeleev and Y. Ramsay came to the conclusion that the need to include in the periodic system of elements particular, the zero group of noble gases

. In addition to pointing to the need corrected atomic masses of elements, . refine formulas of oxides and the valences of elements in compounds, . periodic law written to further the work of chemists and physicists to study the structure of atoms, . establishing the causes of periodicity and the physical meaning of the law,
.

Mendeleyev systematically studied solutions and isomorphous mixtures. Constructed (1859) pycnometer - a device for determining the density of the liquid. Created (1865-1887 gg.) Hydrate theory of solutions. Developed the idea of the existence of compounds of variable composition. Exploring the gases found (1874) A general equation of state of ideal gas, which includes as particular addiction of the gas temperature, discovered (1834) physicist B. P. E. Clapeyron equation (equation of Clapeyron-Mendeleev). Launched (1877) hypothesis of the origin of oil from the carbides of heavy metals; proposed the principle of fractional distillation in refining. Launched (1880) idea of underground coal gasification. Conducted studies on chemicals used in agriculture. Together with AND. M. Cheltsova participated (1890-1892 gg.) In the development of smokeless powder. A physical theory of scales, developed design rocker, accurate methods of weighing.

A member of many scientific academies and scientific societies. One of the founders of the Russian Physico-Chemical Society (1868). It is named after an element of N 101 - mendelevium. USSR Academy of Sciences established (1962) award and the Gold Medal. D. I. Mendeleev's for the best work in chemistry and chemical technology.


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