Maria Sklodowska-Curie( chemist and physicist)
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Biography Maria Sklodowska-Curie
(7.XI 1867 - 4.VII 1934)
Chemist and physicist. Born in Warsaw. She graduated from the University of Paris (1895). Since 1895. worked in the School of Industrial Physics and Chemistry in the Laboratory of her husband P. Curie. In 1900-1906 he. taught at Sevres normal school, with 1906. - Professor, University of Paris. Since 1914, Mr.. directed chemical department based in its participation in 1914. Radium Institute in Paris.
He is one of the founders of the radioactivity. Came to the conclusion (1897), that the radioactivity of uranium salts is due to the properties of uranium atoms. Together with P. Curie discovered (1898) chemical elements polonium and radium, determined their atomic weight, physical properties and place in the periodic table, determine the nature of radiation and its properties. Developed a method for extracting these elements from the wastes of uranium ore. Expressed (1899) hypothesis about the nature of radiation, introduced the term 'radioactivity'. She studied (1899) Effects of radiation on living cells and was first introduced into medical practice through exposure to radium emanation. Shown (1900), that a-rays are a stream of material particles. For the first time received (1902) pure salt of radium. Developed the basic quantitative methods of measurement of radioactive. Together with the Dutch physicist G. Kammerling Onnes established the independence of the radioactive decay of temperature. Decide on the permanent collapse of a number of radioactive elements and studied the properties of isotopes. Together with A. L. Debernom, processing the salt and other compounds of radium, won (1910), this element in metallic form. They also produced (1911) the first standard radium. During the First World War, organized by X-ray and radiological service hospitals of France. Established a school of specialists in the field of radioactivity.
Foreign Corresponding-Member of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences (since 1907) and honorary member of the USSR Academy of Sciences (since 1926).
Nobel Prize in Physics (1903, together with P. Curie). Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1911).