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Michael Faraday

( English physicist and chemist)

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Biography Michael Faraday
(22.IX 1791 - 25.VIII 1867)
English physicist and chemist, member of the Royal Society of London (since 1824). Born in London. Studied independently. Since 1813. worked in the laboratory G. Davy at the Royal Institution in London (from 1825 g. - Its director), since 1827, Mr.. - Professor of the Royal Institute.

Research began in the field of chemistry. Engaged (1815-1818 gg.) Chemical analysis of limestone, with a view to improving the quality of steel investigated alloys of iron, studied the effect of various additives on the quality of steel. For the first time received (1824) in liquid chlorine, and then hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, ammonia and nitrogen dioxide. Received in liquid form as arsenic, iodide, bromide and hydrogen phosphide, ethylene. Open (1825), benzene, and studied its physical and chemical properties of some. Open (1825) isobutylene. Received (1826) N a-and b-naphthalene sulfonic acid and its salts prepared 15. He put the beginning (1826) Studies of natural rubber. Showed the possibility of the photochemical chlorination of ethylene for 15 years prior to the implementation M. B. A. Dumas opening reaction metalepsii. One of the pioneers of the study of catalytic reactions. Tried to synthesize (1825), ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen action of potassium hydroxide in the presence of metals. Considered the adsorption on the surface of solid catalysts as a purely physical phenomenon. For the first time received (1828) etilsernuyu acid interaction of ethylene and sulfuric acid. Carried out the work (1824-1830 gg.) To improve the quality of optical glass. He suggested a heavy lead glass, through which discovered the phenomenon of magnetic rotation of the polarization plane. Install (1833) Quantitative laws of electrolysis. Much to his achievements in the field of physics. Conducted research on electromagnetism. The creator of the theory of electromagnetic field. Introduced the concept of permittivity.

A member of many scientific academies and scientific societies. Foreign member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (since 1831).


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