Rerberg Ivan Ivanovich( The Great Architect)
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Biography Rerberg Ivan Ivanovich
I.I. Rerberg emerged as a builder and master of architecture even before the revolution, and in the Soviet years very actively and successfully worked to resolve the major architectural and construction problems. AV. Schusev considered him a great master, saying: "The rich experience and great organizational skills I.I. Rerberg give the right to call him one of the largest builders of Moscow ". Among his buildings, such buildings, without which we can submit our capital.
Born Ivan Rerberg October 4 (New Style) 1869 in Moscow. Among his ancestors was a lot of the talented people. According to family legend, when Peter I Danish shipbuilder Rerberg was invited to Russia and settled in the Baltic. According to the documents the end of the reign of Peter I in the Admiralty Revel (now Tallinn) employed 300 artisans, including the ship's master to apprentice, and two students. Several other artists and assistants (eg, mat, konopatny) and a staff of "ordinary" workers. Probably referred to the shipbuilder, and then graduated from the established three years before the Institute of Railway Engineers. Later he was deputy chairman of the commission on the construction of St. Isaac's Cathedral in St. Petersburg. Uncle Ivan Ivanovich, Peter Fedorovich was a professional soldier, member of the heroic defense of Sevastopol (in 1854 -1855 gg.). His father, Ivan Fedororovich, a railway engineer, a major organizer of railway transport, by capital of printed works. At the end of the Cadet Corps, and then a military school Ivan was sent to the Battalion. Then went to the St. Petersburg Military Engineering Academy. The basis of his interest in his student days were not military fortifications, and the construction of transportation, waterworks and other projects. He was, as was at that time, in practice the path of a mason and a carpenter to foreman of construction. Receiving in 1896 the title of a military engineer, Ivan participated in the construction of a large steam locomotive and mechanical plant in Kharkov, which enabled him to master advanced for that time, construction methods.
Since late 1897 I.I. Rerberg participated in the construction of grand and majestic buildings of the Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow (now the Museum of Fine Arts A.S. Pushkin) as one of two deputy of the author and architect, builder RI. Klein
. The construction of this unique building, . embodied many of the architectural and engineering facilities abroad 19-20 centuries, . creative interaction with the major architects, . scientists and engineers, . involved in the design of the building, . appeared to Rerberg remarkable school experience and skill,
. At his suggestion was an effective heating and ventilation system of the building. Founder of the museum, Professor of Moscow University I.V. Tsvetayev frequently addressed letters on the building directly I.I. Rerberg.
. Preserved copy of the license, . Rerberg issued and signed by the director and scientific secretary of the museum: "The administration of the Museum of Fine Arts certifies, . that the engineer Ivan Rerberg was deputy and assistant builder of this museum in Moscow from 1897 to 1909 years and the credit for his work was awarded the title for life gratuitous architect of the museum building ",
. I. I. Rerberg continued to work on the museum until 1912, ie until the end of all the works to open it.
. Becoming a recognized expert, Ivan Ivanovich, even during the construction of the museum participated in the restoration and repair work building the arena in 1904
. He also supervised construction of several buildings on the project RI. Klein: Department Stores, Muir and Mereliz (now CUS, . 1907-1908, respectively) building clinic in Malaya Pirogov Street, . Corps of Moscow University, . emergent end-window facade on the avenue Marx next to the old university building (now the Moscow Geological Prospecting Institute), . residential, . educational and other buildings,
In the late 19 th century began independent creative activity I.I. Rerberg. From mid 1900-1910 period, he developed an active project work, including in collaboration with architects. One of the first projects undertaken was the ammunition plant near Suschevsky shaft (not preserved). In 1906 Rerberg developed a draft of the biggest in Moscow on a five-story "houses and cheap apartments for the family" on the second Meshchanskaya Street (now Gilyarovskogo, House 27) with funds bequeathed a rich Moscow merchant. The report, . made at the Moscow Architectural Society, . active member of which he was, . Ivan said, . that work on a project he began with learning the harsh conditions of the urban poor, . which should have "the inalienable right to protection from unfair fate",
. This unusual layout of the house was occupied in 1909 and received a positive otsenku3 in print. In 1960 the building was fully reconstructed and handed Rossiyskomu Union of Consumer Societies.
Even larger building Ivan implemented in the very center of Moscow. Traceable to the Red Square shopping street Elijah rested against the massive stone tower with a gate Chinese city wall (not preserved). The area between the wall and standing on Ilyinke very rich in its architectural decoration of a large cross 17 th century (not preserved). Northern Insurance Company has decided to build a complex of office buildings and profitable trade and warehousing purposes. At the Moscow Architectural Society announced a competition was identifiable 22 projects. In the spring of 1909 a jury awarded two first prizes sponsors under the motto "Center" - St. Petersburg architect MM. Peretyatkovich and I.I. Rerberg. Solving the problem of combination of new, sat down to meet the aesthetic demands of the twentieth century buildings with facilities passed, the authors aktsentirovy ends of buildings facing the Ilyinka high tower with a dome, rotunda. It was successfully used in the entire area, provides a convenient passage between the intra-five-storied buildings, connected by a transition to the level of the fourth and fifth floors. In the process of preparation and implementation of construction, which involved VK. Oltarzhevsky, I.I. Rerberg significantly refined the project to achieve greater clarity and elegance of the architectural appearance of new forms for the time style - neo-classicism, which he had great hopes. Significant role in shaping them belong to individual parts and stucco decorations. It was one of the typical attempt to combine the techniques of design, characteristic of the early twentieth century, with architectural forms of the first third of the 19th century, freely adapting their. Building construction was completed in 1911. The clock on the tower were clearly visible on the ledge of the tower Ilyinskikh gate from the market square and the square. As noted in the published while Yearbook Architectural Moscow "," on monumentality and beauty is one of the best works of contemporary architecture in Moscow ". Here now placed in the Committee of People's Control of the USSR and other Soviet and party organs.
In the forms of the Russian Empire, characteristic of Pushkin's time, Rerberg developed and implemented in order to promote the Company's hard work building design girls' high school (so far kept the project design of the building). The proportions and details of the facade, the interior of the building, erected in 1911-1912 in the Large State-owned Lane (now the School of N330), distinguished by elegance.
Of the other buildings of this time, we note the red former mansion NV. Urusova on Novokuznetskaya Street, . 12, . shopping mall, . existed at the site of the new building TsUM, . two-storey building Moskovosko-Brest railway technical school near Belosrusskaya, . three-storey building a vocational school in the 1st Miusskaya Street, . which is now part of the buildings of the Moscow Institute of Chemical Technology named after DI,
. Mendeleev, infectious case of the Moscow Military Hospital in Lefortovo and others.
Yearbook Architectural Moscow, wrote in 1911: "Ivan Rerberg belongs to a group of relatively young, but very popular builders". Since 1910 all the projects signature Rerberg was the first, which corresponds to its leading role among creative collaborators. Unlike civil engineers, also called the engineer and architect, Ivan Ivanovich knew much deeper constructions and features of their work, and guidance in the technique of building production. So he boldly applied the concrete and other modern materials, skillfully using inherent in them the potential of architectural shape.
In the work I.I. Rerberg appreciated the clarity and depth of study of space-planning decisions, the ability to fit into the urban ensemble. Age. Spawned confusion in the architectural and stylistic issues that shaped the talented work of masters, though he has managed to insulate itself from the excesses and infertile creative hobbies, but his quest is mainly associated with the development of Neo-Classicism.
At the very beginning of the century Ivan lived in a government apartment in Lefortovo, then near the binge for some time in the house of N6 Dobroslobodskaya lane and nearly twenty years as part of a two-storey mansion in Dinisovom Lane, 6. Here he worked on projects, actively filled his library, free time gave watercolor painting, and in the summer he lived at the dacha Bolshevo, where the combined vacation with hard work.
. Since 1906, Rerberg for thirteen years has taught at the School of Painting, . Sculpture and Architecture and the Moscow Engineering uchilesche (so-called until 1913 the Moscow Institute of Railway Engineers) initiated obuscheniya women in architectural courses, . founder and teacher who has been a long time.,
. After Rerberg participated in the restructuring of the old building on Chistoprudny Boulevard, . 6, . for the Board of the Moscow-Kiev-Voronezh Railway, . He received Zakan for design and construction of grand Bryansk Station (1934 - Kiev) in place of existing timber.,
. The development project was carried out with the participation of the architect VK
. Oltarzhevsky were used to achieve the world's architectural experience and practice of large-span arched roof over the platforms. The basis of creative research identified the position of the station near the Moscow River and the lively city of radial line passing through Borodino Bridge. The bridge, built a year before the birth I.I. Rerberg project of his father (in conjunction with the engineer I.F. Koenig), 1912-1913, respectively, before the construction of the station was replaced by the modern (architect RI. Klein, an engineer NI. Fragments).
The creative process of shaping the image processing station was similar to the architectural forms of the complex of the Northern Insurance Company. Repeatedly crafted main facade with a colonnade at the level of high second-tier, . acquired great elegance of its flanking portals - porch, . tower 51 meters was made beyond the facade, . and its original architectural processed.,
. The outer contour of the building is almost 900 meters
. Waiting rooms are spacious and have a great height, the area of the largest of them - the central, more than 900 m2. Behind the waiting rooms were four driveways under a glass-coated angaropodobnym landing stages. In a constructive basis of the coating width of 47 meters, length 231 meters and a height of 30 meters Rerberg envisaged an arch of the large open-work metal elements, connected in pairs in the upper part. Their design, fabrication and installation has taken the specialized firm Bari, chief engineer is an outstanding designer-engineer VG. Shukhov, without changing the fundamental structure, rationalized it, that simplified production and reduced the cost. Shukhov recognize not only the performers, but also by the unique cover.
The summer of 1914 held a ceremony of the building. In the implementation of home decoration attended sculptors SS. Aleshin (sculpture "Trud" and "Harvest" on the main facade, etc.), FI. Rerberg (participation in the painting ceilings) and other masters. Major works were completed in 1917.
In 1920 I.I. Rerberg conducted additional work at the Kiev station, mainly finishing. Ivan planned to establish a large area, linking the station with the city. Modern area of the Kiev railway station can be seen as the embodiment of ideas I.I. Rerberg.
Not bezynteresno fate of this major railway station building. In 1940 - 1945 years to it was added at the end of the northern flank of the corps to the cash room and lobby station (on projects D.N. Chechulina), and then in the building has carried out important work, full of interiors of a number of new details, but do not meet rerbergskomu direction. Restoration of the 1979-1981 year was sent to update the existing finishes and architectural details. At the same time were carried out repair and reconstruction of the metal cover above the platforms, . slightly modified design and appearance of the roof: stepped rows laid more than 2800 panels in the form of metal frames and special glass increased resistance, . including color.,
. In early 1920 the Moscow City Council passed Kiev station standing near the four-story apartment building, built in 1882 by Ivan rebuilt it under the railway Privokzalny club, soon converted into a club named after AI
During the Civil War construction activity in Moscow was very limited, and the first organizational steps were specific nature. So, who was responsible for anti-epidemic sanitary inspection device on the railway crossing sanitation facilities, the Committee was reorganized into a special committee on the construction of Moscow (Oskomov). I.I. Rerberg CTO of this committee is combined organizational and technical activities and project. One of the works Rerberg in this period was a partial processing of the project and complete the mothballed in 1915 the construction of five-storey building, Bread on Novinsky Boulevard (the building is not preserved). At the same time he built a wooden pavilion at the All Bread Agriculture and Handicraft Industrial Exhibition 1923.
. A large order has been designing and management of a superstructure with two floors of a large three-story office building Varvarinskoye company on Butcher Street, . erected in 1890, . as well as design and construction of new buildings in the yard,
. It is located was created after the Civil War Oil syndicate USSR. In the guise nadstroennyh floors are visible features of the creative handwriting Rerberg: with sparing use of simple architectural details and some stucco decorations achieve the necessary alignment of the new part of the facade of the old, . equally responsive to business-building,
. Thus, I.I. Rerberg performed one of the first orders for capital construction of residential, administrative and public buildings.
Given the inherent I.I. According to AV. Schuseva, he "did a lot of work for these theaters".
The first of these works belonged to the Moscow Art Theater, which is due to energy KS. Stanislavsky in the 20's he created its affiliates, studios and other "branches". Save the layout of interiors of one of their attitude to the theater building with the logo - with the image of a seagull in the pattern parquet floor, made from drawings Rerberg in 1921.
Of particular importance is the participation I.I. Rerberg Bolshoi. As a result of the strong foundations of rainfall heavy-duty internal walls of the building have deteriorated. 1921-1923 years Ivan led the complex and very important work on the device of the new foundations, while the theater continued to operate. In addition to the restructuring of foundations, Rerberg redid most deformed overlap and distortions of the box tiers.
Three years later, Ivan made a draft redevelopment foyer, rehearsal halls, and some artistic space, as well as the reconstruction of stairs near the wardrobe. The project was based on a thorough study of the history of the building, whose results Rerberg published. The project was carried out under his constant guidance until 1932.
In 1925 he was drafted for the task of designing the building of the Central Telegraph, which includes radio host and long-distance telephone exchange. Had an open competition, which was attended by many famous architects, and then personally had ordered another two projects, one of them I.I. Rerberg. Completed project is well in line with the full range of functional tasks, as well as the requirement monumental architectural solutions. Despite the objections of representatives of the new creative direction in architecture, this project was approved by the Moscow City Council in early March 1926, and May 22 was carried out ceremony of the building.
. Draft Central Telegraph building was designed with great care
. Cut off the corners of the main facade due to urban development opportunities. Thanks to one of these sections of the building well "to its appearance with the then not reconstructed, the narrow streets of Tver. Cutting off an acute angle to the device's main entrance, Rerberg fulfilled this part of the building in a broad pentagon tower, which rises to ten meters above the rest of the facades. The tower is equipped with a rotating glass globe. On a raised platform above the sidewalk in front of two gray granite obelisk bearing delicate iron frame of the console in the form of interlocking oak branches for hanging lamps. In like manner the upper frame are made of the lattice tower.
For decoration of facades used gray Ukrainian granite and decorative plaster with the inclusion of a crumb of granite. The author of the project could meet the requirements of the task: "Identify the processing of fronts, not only industrial and social character of the building of telegraph and radio host, but also give it a monumentality that corresponds to the city of Moscow.
. Construction of the Central Telegraph was completed in 1927
. It marked the beginning of the reconstruction of the capital's main thoroughfare, which in this sector were expanded streets Belinsky and Ogarev - also 6.5 meters. Once the cat Tverskaya Street was reconstructed, the importance of the Central Telegraph has become even more.
Unfortunately, a complete list of project Rerberg not, but the fate of some of his works, a reference which could be found, can only be judged with some degree of reliability. For example, the building of the former Commerce Academy, apparently, because has not been realized, that this organization to accommodate the 1920's.
Among other projects Rerberg include chemical laboratory of Moscow State University, home of the Institute of locomotive.
At various times I.I. Rerberg designed for other cities. In his project to build a building in St. Petersburg, Tyumen, near the town of Istra. During the First World War as a military engineer, he had to build fortifications. The exhibition, timed to the 1 st Vsesoeznomu Congress on civil engineering and construction (1926), demonstrated his project for the station of Sochi.
. Being a master of a wide range, Ivan always obey their creativity through a realistic architectural and urban problems
. This valuable feature of his words can describe VG. Belinsky: "He always kept his energetic imagination in a stronger leash cold mind."
Since 1920. I.I. Rerberg has been active in educational activities, particularly at the Faculty of MTU and taught a course estimated cases, saturating the lectures interesting examples of its practice.
Ivan Ivanovich often had to perform various responsible assignments. At the end of 1924, as a member of the commission, headed by AV. Lunacharsky, he and other leading Soviet architects developed a specification for competitive design Mausoleum VI. Lenin on Red Square. In 1931 Rerberg joined the commission for receiving the largest for its time and a public housing complex in Moscow, including a 500-apartment residential complex CEC and SNK Street Serafimovicha.
. The great authority Rerberg shows private treatment to him for advice and assistance
. In 1925, when the house were removed Pashkova ethnographic collections, and collections of paintings abolished the Rumyantsev Museum, and vacant premises handed over to the State Library named after VI. Lenin, promoting I.I. Rerberg. AI. Shchusev п?.п?. Mashkov and EV. SHervinskom ensured a restoration of this architectural masterpiece.
Recognizing the great merits I.I. Rerberg, the Bureau of the Central Executive Committee in the summer of 1932 awarded him the honorary title of Honored Worker of Science and Technology of the RSFSR.
Engineering Rerberg "- so he signed his drawings, be it design, plans and drawings of facades of buildings or architectural details. This is not just an indicator of modesty and authority: Ivan Ivanovich, like nobody else could achieve this without the hassle of clarity and consistency of all parties to the project that inconsistencies simply excluded. His signature as the guarantee, as if the quality mark. Conscientiously fulfilling a civic duty by focusing on solving the most pressing social problems and never resorting to catchy architectural effects, he made a great contribution to the development of architecture and construction in Moscow.
. If a note on the plan of the city built Rerberg, you will notice how many of them inside the Garden Ring, and beyond
. Most of them are preserved and properly fitted into the urban architectural asambli.