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Le Corbusier

( The Great Architect)

Comments for Le Corbusier
Biography Le Corbusier
'Aesthetics and the aesthetics of the architect engineer connected unity, but the first of them is experiencing rapid flowering, and the other painfully deteriorating'
. 'My quest, as well as my feelings boil down to one, the important thing in life - poetry'
. Le Corbusier. ( 'The architecture')

. In an effort to achieve a new flowering of architecture and aesthetics in the poetry-tion of this important area of human activity - the key to the creation of Le Corbusier - the great master, . Life Koto-cerned connected two centuries in the history of modern architecture.,
. The end of XIX century was marked by unprecedented scale of construction, huge achieve-tions in Science and Technology
. And along with that detected Insolvency traditional aesthetic concepts in art, architecture. The architectural environment occurred bundle: some tried to understand the new opportunities, others in spite of the constructive logic of trying to hide up new designs for false backdrop obvetsha-lyh architectural styles.
. 'In the seventeen years I was fortunate vstre-vented man without prejudice, which is time-Chil me build my house
. And at the age of 17 to 18 years, I built this house with a great hundred-raniem and a whole heap of exciting proisshest-tions. This house, in all probability, terrible '
. This house was the first and last in tvorchest island of Le Corbusier, . built in the spirit of ornamental-tion of style 900-ies modern.Le Corbusier in 19 years ever turned in its a-eating creativity of this page in the history of architectural tours, . never to her not return of schatsya.,
. 'But since then I have become convinced that the house is constructed of materials, working on plans and cut and it determines the success or failure of the works' - displays for himself his first postulate the continued future architect, innovator
. Thus, early in the century, he thinks about the need to seek new ways in the architecture. Young Jeanneret-sion of existin is called the canonical methods and ready-made recipes, the presented in the architectural SQA-crystals, from the concept of 'great inspiration over' having no relation to reality.
. And in his first building of Le Corbusier had sought aesthetic unity of purpose-sky and forms, sought to poetically reflect on and incorporate organic architecture in the surrounding nature.
. 'Once upon a School - is the ability to move freely ..
. relax, immersed in thought, to feel or cause the presence of the medium: the sun - the master of all life, the movement of the WHO-airless sprays, enchanting eyes and flying do shevnoe balance, the spectacle of herbs, flowers, de-revev, sky, space. "


. 'It starts with The Epoch Times
. There are new developments. Industry, streamed like a rushing torrent, brought with it new tools, in-sposoblennye to this new era and generated-WIDE new developments.
The law of economy powerfully controls our actions and thoughts.
The problem at home - is the problem of age. From it now depends on social balance. Per-wai task of architecture in the era of renewal - a reappraisal of values, re-evaluate the constituent elements of the house. Series based on the analysis and experiment. Heavy industry must address the design and mass production of standard elements of the house.
. It should be universally implemented the spirit of the batch, mass housing, to approve the concept of home as the industrial products of mass production, cause a desire to live in the one-room house.
. If we will tear out your heart and mind the concept of frozen home and we will consider the critical and objective point of view, . we come to the house-car, . Industrial product, . healthy (and morally vis-NII) and the beautiful, . How beautiful tools, . that inseparable from our lives,

. The house will be filled with beauty that inspired by man-creator is capable of communica-schit any ordinary and necessary Ouro diyu labor. "
. 'House - a machine for living. "

. (From the book 'the architecture')

. In 1914 Le Corbusier creates project teams production houses, which he called 'Dom-Ino' (the first in the history of architecture the idea of car-CASS home for serial production)
. The project was not realized and obtained the recognition of only in 1929.
... Austere interior studio in Port Molitor reflects the character of its author and the owner. This spacious, comfortable and quiet to work, as in mu-See. And as a museum, you can see only those things that are worthy of contemplation and, obviously, the owner of the road. The works of his friends: Pablo Picasso, Henri Laurent, Fernand Leger.
With the last of Le Corbusier linked particularly profound friendship. Both artists are very similar not only views on art, but his attitude, attitude to life. Both of them - from a family of workers, both nuggets I even taught, bound all reached only to themselves, their talent.
. Since 1922 Le Corbusier built as non-small structures in the vicinity of Paris in a completely new style of plastic, composition and form
. This is a small home-fork-ly, workshops for the closest friends-artist-workers: Amadeus Ozanfana painter in Paris, the sculptor Jacques Lipschitz in Boulogne-sur-Seine. Here is some support raised above ground house La Roche composer Albert Jeanneret, Le Corbusier's brother. Free interior layout creates is unusual, fantastic, but logically in-terriers. Flat roof - terrace with garden. The garden is divided by pillars and the house, and soars over the green. Elongated horizontal windows overlooking the surrounding nature. We have before us the main features of the architecture of Le Corbusier, which we all know it - and the small and grand - projects.
The buildings, constructed by Le Corbusier, the torus-zhestvuet new architectural aesthetics, life-neutverzhdayuschaya and deeply human. To each-ing new building becomes an event in the art world. His works and projects are published in all the architectural journals, he is everywhere promoting new SLO-in architecture. And when in 1923 he published his book 'the architecture', Le Corbusier Stano an initial capital of one of the leading theoreticians of Architect-ry XX century.
In 1925 was published the major work of Le Corbusier's 'Urban'. This book had a great influence on the development of the young science of urban planning, it causes significant in-interest and in our days.

Start the architectural work of Le Cor-byuze coincides with the beginning of XX century. It was a time of experimentation, seeking new hu-dozhestvennoy truth, and it is sometimes found where there seemed to be reigned only utilitarian-ness. Architects innovators sought to find a way to a new architecture, taking into account the needs of modern man, the purpose of building ma-forced ones and construction methods.
Le Corbusier immediately joined the creativity of its older contemporaries. In Vienna, he studied under the architect Josef Hof-mann, Paris, from Auguste Perret, in Germany by Peter Behrens and made friends with a group of arch-detectors 'Verkbund', which included Walter Gropius. But these were merely steps towards creating their own style, in the purest way to express the idea of functional-term architecture, poetic reflection of Le Corbusier.
. Features works of Le Corbusier can be traced to the material creation architectures-Term Arrangement
. He created his most significant in-work only after long and difficult search for the primary architectural form. No matter how complicated the plan and the volume of the building, its stack of simple spatial elements. This feature Corbusier found in reinforced concrete. In place of tra-ditsionnym designs came cooker pain Shogo-size, set on the vertical, concrete counters, too - columns. Thus freed from the wall load: co-lonny were placed inside the building and the wall exceeding raschalas in protecting from external pro-space plane, if you will, the membrane, which can hang on the construction. Ideal material for the wall was glass.
Reinforced concrete and glass for the first time in the works of Le Corbusier received their principal assertion. Corbusier's predecessors, including his mentor, Auguste Perret (1874-1954), architectural facades still alternated the wall and opening. Corbusier uses a continuous ribbon of glass.
Spatial composition is made up of elements taken, state-ing each of two floors of stairs. This simple form Corbusier infinitely varied, creating a variety of living space. Individual cells architect connects the internal communi-katsiyami that he even calls 'street'. Le Corbusier in the closed space of his apartment building accommodates all the necessary func-tion to serve people living in it. Most clearly, this principle was reflected in the famous Marseilles apartment house, built by the architect in 1952. Towards a primary architectural and spatial arrangement of Le Corbusier came through the use of standard building elements. Corbusier saw in the standardization is not only convenient and cheaper construction, but mostly on the once-variantosposobnost. He found a new artistic expression through the use of standard parts. This was preceded by a long-ogy search path. Development of new ferro-governmental structures enabled the most efficient use of standard elements and on this basis a new architecture. In the famous 'five starting points of modern architecture-tion' Le Corbusier's precise wording their principles.

'Five starting points MODERN ARCHITECTURE
1. Legs - pillars: House on separate GCO-Rah! Previously, the house was crammed into the ground, in the dark and often damp places. Reinforced concrete gives us some support. Now the house in the air, high above the ground under the house is a garden, rooftop garden, too.
2. Roofs - Gardens: Reinforced concrete - a new material to create a combined krovlgo building. Considerations of technology, savings in, convenience and psychology lead us to the choice of roof-terrace.
3. Free plan: So far wall of the building were his bearing elements, plan-perature homes entirely dependent on the walls. Applying the concrete allows for free Pla nirovku. Floors will no longer be separated from one another, like compartments. (Hence - a huge savings of residential, rational-utilized each cubic centi-meters, a large savings of material resources.
4. Location of windows along the facade: the window is one of the most important elements of home. The latest tools has opened a window, reinforced concrete has made a real revolution in its history. The windows can be stretched along the entire facade, from one end to another.
5. Free facade: the support rendered beyond the confines of the facade, inside the house. Overlapping credit-pyatsya on consoles. Now facades - a lay-Kie plate of insulating walls and windows. Facade relieved of the load. "

He first established that the architecture and urban planning, or planning of settlements of urban and rural types, in fact, represent a single problem, and not two separate issues. Architecture and urban planning so require a single solution and suggest people work the same occupation.
'The city is an instrument of labor. Cities no longer perform their normal destination. They become infertility-tion, they wear out the body and resist the common sense.
. Continuously growing anarchy of urban offensive, they decay hurt our pride, offends our sense of dignity of own.
. Cities are not worthy of their time, they are not worthy of us.
. Town!
. It is a symbol of man's struggle with nature, sim-parish his victory over her
. This is a man-made organi-nism, designed to protect the rights and cos-give him the conditions for. This is the fruit of Th-lovecheskogo creativity.
Poetry is the human act: the creation of the agreed relationship between perceived image. Poetry of Nature - is shaped restored creation of the mind of our senses. City - is a powerful image, acting on the consciousness of a human being. Is not he can be our source of poetry and segodnyaN '

'ROAD asses
Man goes right, because he has a purpose, he knows where he is. Having chosen a goal, he goes to her without turning.
. The donkey is a zigzag, leisurely walks, races, seyanno, he winds, avoiding large stones, avoiding steep slopes, searching for shade, he tries to hinder as little as possible themselves.
. The man directs a sense of sanity, a man restrains his natural impulses, his instincts in the name of the chosen target
. He under-Chinyayev mind its animality. Osno vyvayas-on experience, it creates a practical rules. Experience is the result of labor, people work to survive. Every production requires a certain way of action-type, the need to obey the rules of experience. To do this we must look ahead, pre-guess the outcome of their actions.
. Ass about anything he does not think his only concern - it quickly to get rid of any worries and efforts.
. Plans of all cities of our continent, including - alas! - And Paris, inscribed ass.
. People are gradually populated the earth and the earth, somehow, to muddle dragged carts
. They moved without going through ditches and potholes, kam-no and swamps, and even the creek proved to be on their way to a major obstacle. So there were trails and roads at the crossroads, on the banks of ponds were built the first cabin, per-vye home, the first fortified POS-PRINCIPLES FOR GOOD GOVERNANCE. The houses were built along the roads and trails, beaten donkeys. Refreshment were carried yk-to continue and strengthen the wall, and erected a building in the heart of urban governance. Roads, paved donkeys, have been institutionalized, well-groomed, populated and used respected. Five ve-ing later was elevated to the second belt reinforcing-tion, then a third, more extensive. In places where roads inscribed donkeys, vyho-Dili, outside the city, built the city gates, the frontier began to charge entrance fees.
City, reinforced better than others, became the capital. Paris, Rome, Istanbul had been built at the crossroads, pro-trampling hooves of donkeys.
Capitals do not have the arteries, they have only the capillaries, their growth is marked by a severe illness, and sometimes leads to death. To survive, these cities have long resorted to the services of surgeons, who endlessly Krom they deal with them.
In the modern city should be the rule-vat straight line. Dwelling houses, water supply-WIDE and sewer lines, highways, Tropics Thoiry - everything must be based on direct. Direct Line healthier city. The curve is his ruin, all sorts of dangers and complications oc-paralyzes life, straight line is the path of historical development rights, this trend of thought and action.
. We must have the courage to look to the Sun-theft at the town square of America
. Perhaps they seem esthete neprivle, boiler rooms, but a moralist, in contrast, have them take a closer look especially carefully.
. time-it
. Curve Street is the result of whim, not-vigil, carelessness, laziness, the animal.
. Direct street - the result of stress, activity, initiative, self -
. It is half of intelligence and nobility.
City - a place of life and hard work.
Parodi, societies, cities, prone to demon-pechnosti, negligence, prone to laziness and idleness, and quickly depart from the scene. Their on-bezhdayut and assimilate other nations, more active and organized.
. That is dying city, and replaced by one other empires come.
. Curve Street - a road asses, straight street - the road people. "
. (From the book 'Urban')
. Poetic Sword-ta Corbusier on the convergence of man and nature has nothing to do with the sentimental idyll of rural life, Leah
. This - rational decision along the town-planning problems, creating the most effective medium for work and on-respiration.

Le Corbusier sees the city as a combination of individual elements of its constituent.
When Pla nirovke city, he applies the same method as in the composition of residential homes. Only now house he takes over for the primary architectural and spatial cell. In the house Corbusier saw the basis of normal human existence. Compo-nent homes form a city where all its spheres - transport, areas of application of labor, community centers - are located in the light of rational human services. Exodus-tion point of planning his' radiant first-roda'-residential district.
Almost always a place where people are working - the factory, business center, occurred without regard to his domicile. This creates an agonizing difficulty for people. Le Corbusier proposed to overcome them, creating a so-called 'a linear city'. 'Linear city' Le Corbusier's not a straight line on the plane and the line, the situation in the real relief, inscribed in it and use-forming the most convenient place for all elements of the city. Corbusier does not fit the project nature, the landscape of far-fetched, of abstract idea, but rather, includes the city at a particular landscape. 'Ya.. proposed integrated idea - wrote Corbusier at the lack of project planning Alzhi-ra .- It is one stroke cuts through the impasse into which goes too fast growing city. I thought of 'Radiant City', printed interventions proposed in the center of the magnificent landscape: sky, sea, the Atlas mountain range, mountains of Kabylia. For each of the 500 thousand ... for every one I envisaged the sky, the sea and mountains, which will be visible from the windows of houses and their inhabitants to create a fertile and resilient-ing now. "

In 1922, the project appears 'modern city' to three million residents. In this project, Le Corbusier contrasted harmonious decision along the chaotic city building up the cities of the capitalist West. His village for workers in Pessac, a Bordeaux (garden city), conceived in 1925 and in a very short time - less than a year - carried out, but over-selenium due to administration of only 1929. Later this village for the workers of the 51 homes has become a model and place of pilgrimage for many architects.

Similarly, the pavilion 'Esprit nuvo'-apartment residential complex on the Exhibition of Decorative of art in Paris. All these works of the architect and innovator marked a genuine revolution-tion in architecture. In 1927 Le Corbusier took part in the competition to design the building of the League of Nations in Geneva. It creates a project, now giving-but all acknowledged masterpiece of architectural creativity tural. The jury found him draft the best, meeting all requirements and Naib-Lee economical. Nevertheless, the forces obvet-Mad academic were still in the majority - have rejected the draft to the triumph of all reaction-ing.

Significantly, his first major pro-product of Le Corbusier conducted in the Soviet Union - the country of victorious socialism, where many dream of the architect and innovator become a reality. In 1928-1933 years of Le Corbusier's designs and builds in Moscow House Tsentrosojuz-now the Central Statistical Office - at the Kirov Street. The building is designed for 3500 servants, provided with all necessary conditions for-mi comfort, large central hall, dining room, assembly hall. Le Corbusier in the thought for this building a special air conditioning system, which in those days for technical reasons it was impossible to impl-stvit. The absence of this system, unfortunately, adversely affected the operation of the Buildings-tion. In the future, the space between which maintain the building was built on pillars, it has deprived the creation of Le Corbusier's pristine-tion of lightness, harmony.
. Building Houses Tsentrosojuz in Moscow - the firstborn of the Buildings of the Soviet administrative-tion of a new type - has become a big event in the development of world architecture
. Everything here was new: the solution of internal spaces, an open plan, concise solution fronts, built on the contrast-tion glazed surfaces and solid walls, lined-tion artic tufa. During the construction of houses Tsentrosojuz were used all the technical construction achievements of those years.
. Stay in the Soviet Union made Le Cor-byuze impressed: "In Moscow, smite-BOXIES abundance of all projects: it plans to factories, dams, factories, houses, pro-ekty entire cities
. And all done under one banner to use all the progress'.

In 1931 hc Corbusier took part in the con-course at the best project of the Palace of Soviets in Moscow. However, it worked for his cousin, a young talented architectures Pierre Jeanneret. The project of Le Corbusier struck the exigencies of decision, which was felt and the influence of Soviet Constructivism. Sim Phonia exposed structures subordinate amounts of new materials.
In the glorious Soviet architecture of Le Corbusier saw a cohort of like-minded people, and it was natural. Many Soviet ma-Coster architecture and urban working-pulleys at the same time with him over the same challenges raised. Undoubtedly, they in turn have turnover Tyva influence of Le Corbusier.
Work on the ambitious project of the Palace of Soviets became a new stage in the work of Le Corbusier. However, his project has aroused much controversy, mainly because they carried away-tinued constructivist ideas of Le Corbu-shell does not take into account the nature of the surrounding buildings and its decision is not combined with historically SLO-lived appearance of wood-sledge Moscow.

. In the years 1929-1931 Le Corbusier in Soave-torstve with Pierre Jeanneret lifted one of its major buildings in Paris - House of Salvation Army
. Here is the first time in Europe was carried system konditsionirova of Air in a building with complex glazing, an area of 1000 square meters.
. In 1930-1932 Le Corbusier built a dormitory for Swiss students in Paris on, on campus
. This building has long been recognized as a classic made-tion of architecture, has become an important stage in the creative-operation of Le Corbusier, but not all of his contemporaries were able to assess the achievement of a new master. Bur-bourgeois media even picked up a rabid witch-hunt by heaping abuse and flows to the author and his sozdanie.V 1928 Le Corbusier on society organized the International Congress of contemporary architecture Noah (SIAM).
. The first congress of the society was held in 1928, first do in the castle of La Sarah in the Swiss canton Tso
. Then, to discuss the problems for the rational construction of society members gathered in 1930 in Stuttgart. In 1933 go-do society in Athens, discussing prob-lems of urban development. The results of this work formed the basis of the book of Le Corbusier's 'Athens Charter'. In 1937 in Paris, discussed the problem of Siam 'Residence and Recreation'. Constant leader at these congresses was Le Corbusier. He even one day is not pre-ryval his usual intense activity. He donated drafted reconstruct ruktsii Algiers. He has lectured, published articles, he wrote the book 'When the cathedrals were white-mi' and 'Radiant City', setting out their ideas in a perfect human settlements. Vehement-schimaya and purposeful energy of an artist and a fighter brought international interest in the issues of a new understanding of gradostroi-tion of science, . to the contemporary architecture, . which now defines the person bolytse all cities, . countries and continents.,

. Such men as Auguste Perret, Fernand Le same Jourdain, Picasso, Le Corbusier took the work with enthusiasm, support them, can-rolis for them
. But their projects are created and built on them in the building met aka-demicheskih and bourgeois circles, the sharp pro-tivodeystvie. His sling mud, heaped coarse insults. Its inherently democratic innovation, these people are hated, it is called 'Trojan horse of Bolshevism'.
. A brilliant debater, Le Corbusier-valsya not remain in debt, he dealt with its pro-tivnikami in articles and books, putting forward at the same time, new and emerging issues, trial-Lema social importance of architecture
. He was guided in his work the demands of all sectors of the population. He knew and appreciated the architectural heritage of all ages and peoples, not only the masterpieces of world importance, but modest-WIDE peasant buildings, and this created a solid foundation for its architectural and musical-tion.
. Revolt against epigonism and eclecticism in architecture, Le Corbusier grasped the needs of the future.
. And let it not always been consistent in his outlook, which lies at the basis of his work, in the direction of his work he was not mistaken
. He worked for the future.

. 'Acting like the experimenter in a laboratory, I avoided the private matters Deletions Chill all the elements of chance, I ensure myself Chil-ideal conditions for research-tion.
. The aim was not to show there exists-stvovavshee above situation, and to establish a clear theory and ITS basis, to provide the Basic Principles of Modern GRA-DOSTROITELSTVA
. These principles, if they are sufficiently well founded, could constitute the backbone of the whole system of modern urbanism, construction, and they will become something like the rules of the game.
. Based on the revealed truth, we can safely take up all the individual cases - whether it be Paris, London, Berlin, New York, whether it is the tiny Goro-dock - and begin developing a plan of the forthcoming battle
. The fact that the reconstruction of a major modern city - it is indeed a great battle. And can join struck-tion, not knowing the exact goals that with his help we are going dostignutN naho-dimsya precisely in such a situation. Authorities raised a dead end, throw in all sorts of adventures, without the help foot and mounted gendarmes, sounds and light-toforov, hinged transitions underground ne-shehodnyh tracks, city-gardens and elimination ц-ц©ц+ц¦ trams and t. n. Make desperate efforts to contain the wild animal. But the beast - Big City - too strong, so you can only awaken his fury. What if, think zavtraN
Need Action Program. Must have the basic principles of modern town planning. "

(From the book 'Urban')

During the Second World War created 'moduler' new system of proportional relationships. Le Corbusier lays the basis for architectural metric dimensions of the human body. And take not only the average height of a man, but the size of the seated figures, human foot, the length of his arms, step and t. d. 'Moduler'-not just theory, it contains a detailed framework and practical-mechanical guidance on the application of human proportions in comparison with the conventional metric system of calculation.
. Among those who first rated 'moduler', was the great Einstein, who believed that Nye-designed by Le Corbusier system is of great importance to the practical, not only in the architectural pro, plans, and other human activities.
. In 1943, heavy duty Le Corbusier founded the Association of Builders for the renewal of architecture - 'Askoral'
. Main backside, whose union is the creation of urban housing as a unit. Considering ARE-three forms of settlement: 1) agriculture, 2) a linear industrial city, and 3) radial-concentric trading city. The work of association of Le Corbusier distributed on appropriate sections. Each tackled his department-tion question. Activities Association has brought together leading architects and urban planners of France that has yielded good results.
Immediately after the war Le Corbusier begin drafting reconstruc-tion of two cities: Saint-que and La Rochelle-La Pallice. And at the same time taken for the implementation of UNESCO its long-standing cherished dream - designing a single apartment complex for Marseille - house by 1600 people. In this work he first put into practice 'moduler'. Soz-declare a meeting of the house giant was a triumph of Le Corbusier and the new architecture.
Today the building Marseilles residential component of the Lexa is proud not only of Marseilles. And not only the pride of France. It will serve as a prototype of lo-housing complexes for other cities in Europe. Tens of thousands of tourists go ahead with-annually to see this building.

. In 1950, Le Corbusier, along with other leading representatives of the French Institute telligentsii signed the Stockholm WHO-rank in defense of peace and the prohibition of atomic weapons.

. It is a new page in the works of Le Corbusier's Chapel became the Notre-Dame-du-O in Ronshane, on the creation of which he worked from 1950 to 1954
. Here the master first note Nile elastically curved plane bearing walls, over which as it rises, forming a huge-WIDE-tos, and curvilinear ceiling of reinforced concrete. Small windows-WIDE slits of different sizes and shapes, as if randomly distributed on the facade, creating a in-terrier fabulous effect. These little windows underlines the integrity and monumental buildings. There are some distant association with the ro-May architecture, with ancient temples of Pskov, and most likely, with the old hut-mi French peasants.
. In 1956, Le Corbusier began work on the construction of the Dominican monastery of La Tourette near Lyon
. When a monk spro-Seeley why the building of the monastery is directed by Le Corbusier, Dominican replied: 'For the beauty of the new monastery'. The monks know that the famous artist creates his masterpiece of architecture-tion. Le Corbusier's personal views on religion and the church they were completely indifference personal. The churchmen were not disappointed in their calculations: tourists from all over the world flock to La Tourette, as well as in Ronshan.

Thus Le Corbusier's remarkably consistent in their compositions. He examines the city as an organism, whose life begins in the primary cell and then disseminated stranyaetsya across the wide space. In this continuous creative process he dyvaet contribution for the idea of humanity, kindness, and democracy-tichnosti.
Corbusier's architectural structure be viewed as a plastic form, full of light and shadow, 'sculpted' from the building material. Sculptural and built them a home in Marseilles, and his masterpiece - a cappella Ronshane. In the first case the plasticity achieved lod-zhiyami, rhythmically chlenyaschimi straight facade. Second - plastic curved walls, on-visshey roof and lack of right angles.

Finally the time has come when Le Corbusier's proposals fall asleep. It takes the participation of the latter in the construction of the UN building in New York. Build Museum in Tokyo. In November 1950, Pa-rizh attended by representatives of the Indian governments with a proposal to build at the foot of the Himalayas the new capital of Punjab. From Le Corbusier signed a contract to build the city Chandigarh with government centers rum - the Capitol.
Le Corbusier had completed development of the city in four months, from March 1951 construction began. President Nehru himself watched the construction of Chandigarh, often visited him and provided support to builders at a difficult time. In the material for the work was for the unfavorable Architects. Come live coverage by the incredibly difficult living conditions, unusual for European climate. But al-hitektory, inspired by the unprecedented mass challenge staffs, worked with enthusiasm.
The success has exceeded all expectations. Along the wide-Roca surface of the body of water stretches the new bright light city, the heads of slave-Nation of harmony - harmony with nature and architecture with a man. Once upon a time, even in the 30's, Le Corbusier developed a plan for the reconstruction of Paris. This project pro-led bombshell. Le Corbusier, in fact, proposed to demolish the old Paris, to his place to erect a new, sustained in the strict geometry of the city. These were the first steps in a town-planner Le Corbusier-tion. Then he was convinced prevoshodstvepryamoy line and contrasted the chaos of capital city talisticheskogo purely geometric urban planning decision.
Over the years, the architect came to the new concepts that are closely associated with the real life. And, having the opportunity to build a new city, which could be solved in straight lines, purely geometrically, Le Corbusier went the other way. Enough, but even the uninitiated person to look at a master plan for Chandigarh that is not pro-hundred to see, and feel as organically rooted in the new town took his landscape, terrain.

. Not for nothing desperate Korb, . as they called his close friends, . said about himself: 'they are easily achieved with me to ascribe my own style! Here I'll show them something new: the triumph of oblique lines, . which then triumphantly and easily shoots up, . how would smile deposed down in an easy slalom '.,
. Constantly advancing architectural novshest Islands, ideas, techniques, and he never of his for proposals did not dogma
. His work has always been associated with a concrete reality, Koto-ц¦цЁц+ offered him life, but his brain is unsaturated, but also tirelessly solved all the new challenges in Oesterreich from this inexhaustible source. And this organic, ever-lively exchange, nazy-passer creativity never stopped. To create Corbusier meant to breathe. It is hard to imagine it, but during the construction of Chiang digarha he has built a museum and other buildings in Ahmedabad - the center of Textile Industry of India. In the book 'Radiant City' Le Corbusier formulated the five starting points for modern architecture.
Across the planet, we see architecture built on these clearly defined by law. However, for Le Corbusier it was only the stages of his work. And then others are: buildings in Ahmedabad, Philips Pavilion at the Brussels World's Fair in 1962, a museum in Zurich, built after the death of the great master.
. Le Corbusier believed that architecture should not obey the landscape, and landscape-of Architecture
. Not a hill of the Acropolis dictate architectural tour, according to Le Corbusier, and the Parthenon.
For example, a small temple of the Protection Nerli creates and holds a huge landscape ...
The quests lead in plastic Le Corbusier to painting and sculpture. He approaches the Leger and Picasso, and their bright in color and local-governmental picturesque compositions and multidimensional generalized-tion sculptures he seeks above all overcoming PRINCIPLES FOR GOOD GOVERNANCE two-dimensional plane, and clearly expressed-term architectonics.
. Dreamer and rationalist, . convinced of the great-vote their ideas, . stepped boundaries of his time and the theoretical findings and impl Implemented architectural gradostroitolnyh projects, . Corbusier in all his work was ahead of century, . foreseeing the most rational form of the future of the human POS-PRINCIPLES FOR GOOD GOVERNANCE and life.,
. Can not dispute the merits of Le Karbyuze in the history of world architecture, . but the correctness of some of his claims could be called into question - as a staunch constructivist, . Le Karbyuze rejects decor, . banker's tricks, . too much attention to the frame system,
. The ideal proportion is not always dictated by the optimal design and the beauty of the mechanism - also spornaKrome other things you can not ignore the historical factor - the monuments of architecture. The new architecture should meet modern requirements, but do not go in isolation from the historical heritage.

. Literature:
. Le Corbusier: 'the architecture', 'Urban Planning', 'Radiant City', 'Clarifications on the current state of architecture and town planning', 'Moduler', 'residential complex in Marseilles', 'five starting points of contemporary architecture-term'.
. KT Topuridze 'Le Karbyuze.Arhitektura twentieth century'

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