The identity of Victor Hugo
(1802-1885) is striking in its versatility,
. One of the most widely read French writers in the world, for his compatriots, he first of all, the great national poet, reformer of French poetry, drama, and writer-patriot, politician-Democrat. Advanced topics, he is known as an outstanding master of graphic tireless draftsman fantasy on the themes of his own works. But there the main thing that defines this multi-faceted personality and soul to her work - is the love of man, compassion for the disadvantaged, the call for mercy and brotherhood. Some of the creative legacy of Hugo
already belong to the past: now seem old-fashioned orator, his declamatory pathos, exuberantly velerechie, the propensity to spectacular antitheses of thought and images.
- a Democrat, foe of tyranny and violence against the person, the noble defender of the victims of social and political injustice - our contemporary and will cause a response in the hearts of many, many generations of readers. Mankind will never forget the one who before his death, summarizing its activities, rightly said: 'I'm in my books, dramas, prose and verse stood up for small and unhappy, begged the mighty and unforgiving. I restored to the human rights of a clown, servant, convict and a prostitute '.
. A most vivid demonstration of the validity of this assertion can be regarded as a historical novel 'Notre Dame', initiated by Victor Hugo
in July 1830 and completed in February 1831
. Message from Victor Hugo
to the distant past was caused by three factors in the cultural life of his time: the widespread historical themes in the literature, . passion romantically interpreted medieval, . struggle for the protection of historical and architectural monuments,
. The interest of romantics in the Middle Ages is largely arose as a reaction to the focus on classical antiquity. His role is played here and the desire to overcome the neglect of the Middle Ages, . spread by the enlightened writer XVIII century, . for which this time was the kingdom of darkness and ignorance, . useless in the history of the progressive development of mankind,
. And, finally, perhaps even mainly, the Middle Ages, attracted the romantics their uniqueness, as opposed to prose of bourgeois life, the dull everyday existence. Here you can meet, saw romance in one piece, great characters, strong passions, deeds and martyrdom in the name of belief. All this was seen more in the halo of a certain mystique associated with the insufficient study of the Middle Ages, that fill people's appeal to tradition and legend, having to Romantic writers of particular importance. His view on the role of the Middle Ages Hugo
described as early as 1827 in the author's preface to the drama 'Cromwell', . which became a manifesto for a democratically-minded French Romantics and expressing aesthetic position Hugo
, . which he, . generally, . adhered to the end of life.,
begins his preface with a statement of his own concept of literary history, depending on the history of society
. According to Hugo
, . first big era in the history of civilization - is a primitive era, . when man first in his mind separates itself from the universe, . beginning to understand, . it is beautiful, . and his enthusiasm for the universe is in the lyrical poetry, . the dominant genre of the primitive era,
. The peculiarity of the second period, antique, Hugo
sees that at the time a person begins to make history, creates a society that understands itself through communication with other people, the leading form of literature in this era - epic.
. Since the Middle Ages begins, "says Hugo
, a new era, standing under the sign of a new outlook on the world - Christianity, which sees in man a constant struggle between two principles, the earthly and heavenly, and immortal perishable, animal and divine
. Man, as it were composed of two entities: 'One - mortal, the other - the immortal one - the carnal, the other - incorporeal, single-constrained desires, needs and passions, and more - soaring on the wings of enthusiasm and dreams'. The struggle between these two principles of the human soul is dramatic in essence: '... what a drama, . not as a daily contradiction, . minutely struggle between two principles, . always opposing each other in life, and challenging each other's rights from the cradle to mogilyN 'Therefore the third period in the history of mankind in the literature kind of drama.,
is convinced: everything that exists in nature and society can be reflected in art
. Art no way should limit itself, in essence, it must be true. However, this requirement of truth in art at Hugo
's was pretty conventional, typical of the Romantic writer. Proclaiming, . one hand, . that drama - is a mirror, . reflecting life, . he insists on the special nature of this mirror and it must be, . said Hugo
, . that it 'to gather, . to condense the light rays, . of the reflection makes light, . from light-Flame! " The truth of life is subject to strong transformation, . exaggeration in the imagination of the artist, . which is intended to romanticize the reality, . for her everyday jacket to show the eternal battle of the two polar principles of good and evil.,
. Hence a different situation: thickening, reinforcing, transforming reality, the artist does not show the ordinary and extraordinary, depicts extreme contrasts
. The only way he can identify the animal and the divine beginning, the prisoners in man.
This call to represent the extremes is one of the cornerstones of aesthetics Hugo
. In his works, the writer is constantly resorted to contrast, to exaggerate, to the grotesque comparison of the ugly and beautiful, funny and tragic.