GLAKMEN (Gluckman) Max( English social anthropologist and ethnographer-Africanist)
Comments for GLAKMEN (Gluckman) Max
Biography GLAKMEN (Gluckman) Max
(1911-1975) - English. social anthropologist and ethnographer-Africanist. Born in Johannesburg (South. Africa). He studied at Witwatersrand University those (1928-34), where he attended lectures in. Horn-le and I. Schaper, followers funktsionalistskoy school in anthropology, and from 1934 - at Oxford, where he worked with Evans-Pritchard, M. Fortes and Radcliffe-Brown. The influence of these scholars largely determined theor. attitudes G.; in these years have been formed and its DOS. research interests - law and ritual in tribal on islands. In 1938 he defended his Doctor. dis. dedicated to the concept of the supernatural in the south-east. Bantu. In 1938. settled in North. Rhodesia, where from 1939 he worked in the Institute are they. Rhodes and Livingstone, and in 1941-49 headed this inst. During this period, held a series of field studies: a study in Lozi Barotselende and neprodolzhit. Research the people of Tonga and Lamba. These field studies were widely used later in his work. In 1947-49 Mr.. taught social anthropology at Oxford. In 1949-71 headed the Department of Social Anthropology, Manchester. Zap, organized the Manchester School of Social Anthropology.
In 1954 came one of the landmark work of Mr.. 'Rituals of rebellion in the south-east. Africa '(Frezerovskaya Lecture 1952). In this short paper were formulated DOS. ideas about the rituals of rebellion and the role of conflict in strengthening the social fabric and the maintenance of moral order. The subject of the study were the overthrow of the rituals of the priest-king, prevailing among the peoples of Zululand, Swaziland and Mozambique. Based on their analysis of G. concluded, . that the playing of the conflict in these ceremonies performs cathartic function, . and thus serves to reinforce the social order and cohesion of the members of the Society: rebellion against authority personified the integrity vneindividualnoy system of social institutions,
. Moreover, as in any of the-ve ext. conflicts are inevitable, then ritualized form of conflict is one of the most important mechanisms for maintaining social stability. Comparing breeding on islands with modern, T. indicated that such ceremonies can serve to strengthen the social order only in the first place, because they require as a prerequisite for its effectiveness community OCH. beliefs and values of members of the Society, as well as the overall stability his political background: rituals of rebellion are characteristic of the-in, the basic axioms and principles of the organization to-ryh not be challenged participants. Int. enemies can rebel against Dep. King, they do not try to overturn his political system. In modern. on the islands, where his political stability is constantly under question, the ritual forms of regulation of social conflicts are losing their effectiveness, and the function of maintaining his political stability on the island of Chapter serves. arr. formal right. The idea of the functionality of the tribal conflict in the islands was further developed in subsequent papers G.
The value of these ideas Mr.. interpreted in different ways: to assess their development as functional theory (and the G. considered himself a follower Durkheim theor. tradition), while others viewed them as a strong blow to funktsionalistskoy paradigm and as an alternative to it ( 'conflict') theory. model, which goes back to Marx and Simmel. The influence of Marxist social theory on T. one time was quite a strong.
Devoted to the topic of ritual, etc.. work G.: 'Zulu South. Africa '(1940),' The role of the sexes in an initiation ceremony in vetch '(1949),' Custom and Conflict in Africa '(1955), Sat. essays 'Order and rebellion in tribal Africa' (1963). Research like 'primitive' peoples were devoted to his work 'trial in North Barotse. Rhodesia '(1955) and' Ideas of Barotse Jurisprudence '(1965).
In 1965. published work 'Politics, law and ritual in tribal on-ve', which attempted to provide obscheteor. Analysis of the tribal-in. The paper deals with a wide range of issues: the impact of the economy to a system of social relations, property and land tenure, the relationship of order and conflict, the role of conflict in the settlement of internal. differences; disputes and ways of resolving them, the problem of stability and change in breeding on-ve. Innovative ideas D. obtained in this work further development. Was clearly articulated the idea that the social structure itself contains the potential for conflict. Because of the contradictions between decomp. structural principles of the individual inevitably gets into a situation where the different roles performed by them on the island of, placing his behavior incompatible demands. Smoothing these contradictions in the tribal on the islands is carried ch. arr. through ritual, and ritual itself, serves primarily the function of neutralizing the resulting island of contradictions. 'Unifying force of ritual symbols' is in the pedigree of the islands of DOS. force maintaining social cohesion.
In 1963, under the leadership of Mr.. conclude a major researchers. project to study the industrialized societies of Israel (Bernstein Israel Research Project) - one of the first post-war anthropology. Research sovr. ob-va. Sam G. turned to the study sovr. ob-va just at sunset of his career, co-wrote with M. Glakmen short article 'On the drama, games and athletic. competition '(1977). He published a study of systems of kinship and marriage (1950), gossip and scandal (1963).