KLAKHON (Kluckholm) Clyde( American anthropologist)
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Biography KLAKHON (Kluckholm) Clyde
(1905-1960) - Amer. anthropologist, known for his study of Navajo culture. He studied at Princeton University are; to illness in 1922, settled in the frame (ea. New Mexico), where he studied the culture of the Navajo Indians. These studies have identified OCH. direction of his scientific work, and thereafter he repeatedly returned to these places for field studies. In 1928, those in the University of Wisconsin received a bachelor's degree. In 1931-33 he taught anthropology at the University are the state of New Mexico since 1935 - at Harvard, where in 1936 he defended his Doctor. dis. and worked until the end of his life. In 1936-48 led to large-scale scientific issled. project 'Ramah Project', a view to-cerned was the description of cultural patterns of Navajo. In 1949, led (along with J. Brou and Parsons) 'The project will compare. study of values in five cultures'. In 1947 K. founded the Harvard Institute of Russian. research; until 1954 was its director. Highlights of work: 'Witchcraft in Navajo' (1944), 'Mirror for man: the relationship of anthropology with the present. life '(1949),' Culture: critical. overview of concepts and definitions' (1952, Joint. with Kroeber).
Anthropology to. understood as an interdisciplinary science, designed to play the center role in the integration of Human Sciences. His work is characterized by a combination etnogr. descriptions with theor. analysis of the issues investigated. Theor. position to. ambiguous, it is possible to trace the influence of Boas, Sapir, Lin-tone, Kroeber, psychoanalysis, etc.. Finding theor. models K. often turned to the fields of social science, while sufficiently distant from the anthropology. Considering that the humane. behavior is always and in almost all respects, one way or another to transform culture, he vigorously opposed the spread at that time in cultural anthropology, behavioral interpretations of behavior. Important theorems. themes of K. were relationship problems of culture and identity, cultural standardization humane. behavior and cultural values. Since t. sp. K., cultural identity is formed through the processes of education, giving ODA. form of 'raw' humane. nature. All people, regardless of their cultural environment, inherent in ODA. general needs, . but 'each culture has its own system of the most desirable and most welcome way to meet those needs, . and each of the broadcasts of the new generation at the earliest stages of the life of a standard now valued goals and sanctioned behaviors',
. Normative and value system of the Society provides a common means of adaptation to the environment by individuals belonging to it. Along with these cultural pressures determine the characteristic of a particular cultural communica-va forms of mental. deviations (AIOC in Malays; kannibalistich. aggression in neck-ryh Indians of Canada; arktich. hysteria is a neck-ryh Siberian peoples; 'pork madness' in Sumatra; schizophrenia underclass, manic-depressive psychosis in first-class and psihosomatich. disorders of the middle class in the U.S., etc.). Even the common behaviors to-rye predetermined organically, are in every culture its particular importance.
Basic Fixes. mechanism for the formation of personality in culture - learning - K. divided into two types: Techno. and regulatory training. Under Tekhniki. learning meaning the transfer Tekhniki. skills to make the individual productive, socially useful member of the Society, can contribute to improving living standards group and its strength. Regulatory training - opposed to technical, his goal - reducing the significance of the individual in the group, the prevention of violations of accepted practices, avoidance of intra disharmony and disintegration. K. opposed to flat and one-sided interpretations of the relationship between personality and culture, and refrained from the extremes of cultural determinism. With its T. sp., 'there are constant dynamic. relationship between the patterns of culture and personalities of its individual members'. A simplified model of the interpretation of these relationships ( 'diaper determinism' in the neck-ryh jobs J. Gorera) K. considered unacceptable.
The mechanism of formation of personality and cultural standardization of behavior and vital installations were studied in detail to. and described in the book 'Children of Men: Navajo individual and its development' (1947, Joint. with D. Leighton), which became one of the most brilliant examples opisat. Research 'nats.haraktera'. Based on many years etnogr. observations, K. identified the following DOS. especially th. character ( 'Psychology') Navajo: curiosity, shyness and modesty; passive self-removal from problem situations, the uncertainty of spatial-temporal representations; emotions. variability; combination of realism in everyday life with a complete lack of realism in the overall world view, the wealth of imagination.
To. also made a mean contribution to the theory of cultural patterns and values. In the works' Standardization of conduct by the example of Navajo culture '(1941),' Hidden Culture and administration. problems' (1943), 'The concept of culture' (1945, Joint. with U. Kelly), he divided decomp. levels and types of cultural standards of conduct and presented an original interpretation of the hidden (or implicit) cultural patterns, ie. regularity of humane. Conduct a-rye, not realizing the members of the Society, nevertheless clothed in more or less severe form of culturally determined.
Late For Work. - 'Mirror for man', 'Universal values and anthropological. relativism '(1952), "Universal categories of culture' (1953), 'Etich. relativity: sic et pop '(1955) - devoted, Chapter. arr., the problem of value systems and universal cultural values. Basic Fixes. idea to. that, despite deleted variety of customs, all cultures are inherent in ODA. common fundamental values. Identifying these values he considered one of the most important tasks of anthropology. science, the solution to-swarm should help chart a new world order emerging in the fall of former impermeable boundaries between cultures: '... crisis of our age - a crisis of values. And there is almost no hope of building new, . more stable, . than before, . social formations, . until will not build new, . broader and more complex relationships based on values, . to-hence take only are recognized and deeply rooted in the feelings, . but also have det,
. scientific justification '.
Requiring the removal of science from the problem of values to. considered harmful and illegal. Sami values considered them as' def. sort of social facts', measurable ethically-neutral scientific description and analysis. One of the goals of anthropology - to check compliance with the facts of nature values, t. e. comparison of their expected consequences to real, as I thought K., attainable final result of such analysis should be up to the value of a scientific foundation. Among the indisputable universal values include truth and beauty, was also noted that in any culture is not the value of suffering as such.