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LYNTON (Linton) Ralph

( American anthropologist)

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Biography LYNTON (Linton) Ralph
(1893-1953) ~ amer. anthropologist, one of the leaders of Amer. Cultural Anthropology Tues. Thur. 20 in. He began his career as an archaeologist, participated in the archaeologist, expeditions in the south-west. areas of the United States and in Guatemala (1912, 1913, 1916, 1919). In 1920-22 conducted a field study on competition of a doctor. degree on the islands of the Marquesas (Polynesia), under the influence of this expedition has shifted research interests L. to cultural anthropology. In 1925 he received a Doctor. degree from Harvard. un-te, after which single-handedly made an expedition to the Vost. Africa and Madagascar (1925-27). Worked in unte Wisconsin (1928-37), Columbia (1937-46) and Yale (1946-53), un-max.
Its DOS. Work 'study of man' (1936) was an attempt to achieve a synthesis of anthropology, psychology and sociology within a single discipline that studies chelov. behavior in its entirety. In this paper, culture is understood as a set of behaviors that are common to most members of the Society and assimilated them in the learning process. Culture was divided into 'external' (available monitoring povedench. aspects of culture) and 'hidden' (installation, emotions, values, etc., the underlying cultural behavior). For the analysis of social phenomena and processes L. developed the concept of statuses and roles, had a great influence on the structural-functional sociology and ethnology in the U.S.. Status (or position) is understood as a structural unit and is defined as an individual's place in the social structure, characterized by the total ODA. rights and responsibilities; status may be prescribed by the individual from birth (eg, in the caste system), or pursued through the individual. The role was defined as' dynamic. aspect of the status ':' An individual socially prescribed ODA. status, and he took it in relation to other statuses. When he accepts the rights and duties which constitute the status, and leads them into action, it acts as a '. This L. recognized as a classic definition of the role; follow its development is linked with the names of Parsons, T. Newcombe etc.. L. distinguished between two types of roles: 'actual' (actually run) and 'ideal' (normative cultural patterns on the K-rye should be directed behavior in this status). Holistic set of roles forms a perfect social system.

In 1937-45 L. collaborated with Kardiner. The result of their collaboration was the development of the concept of 'basic personality types'. Considering its lack, L. book 'The cultural basis of personality' (1945) developed the concept of 'personal status', developed the theory of 'basic personality types'. With his t.zr., standardized set of roles, culturally enshrined in the on-ve given status, creates 'a person of status', or ODA. configuration of the individual inherent in the on-ve majority of individuals who hold this status. Common elements of status of persons of any of the islands were considered as basic personality type of the ob-va.

In recent works of L., published posthumously, - 'The Tree of Culture' (1955) and 'Culture and mentally. Violations' (1956) - dealt with issues related to biology. foundations of cultural behavior, deviations from the 'basic personality type', with the existence of universal values common to all cultures


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  • Angel for LYNTON (Linton) Ralph
  • about works in anthropology, specifically nicherta no, but very necessary!
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    LYNTON (Linton) Ralph, photo, biography
    LYNTON (Linton) Ralph, photo, biography LYNTON (Linton) Ralph  American anthropologist, photo, biography
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