LORENZ Konrad Tsaharius( Avstriysuy scientist, Nobel Prize for Medicine (1973),)
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Biography LORENZ Konrad Tsaharius
(1903-1989), Austrian. scientist, Nobel Prize for Medicine (1973), founder of ethology - the science of animal behavior.
He studied medicine in Vienna, engaging in parallel to compare the anatomy, philosophy and psychology. Since 1940 Professor. philosophy in Konigsberg, un-te, from 1948 worked as un-te Munster, then - in the Institute of Physiology of behavior are im.M. Planck Zeevizene.
In his view greatly influenced research Whitman, Craig, Heynrota, but in philosophy and culture - the ideas of Kant, Schiller, Freud. A characteristic feature of his work is an attempt to combine Evol. (or functional) and teologich. (or cause-'mehanizmennoe ') understanding of the behavior. This allowed us to consider the essence of behavior in its subordination to the notion of. For L. typical requirement of the interdisciplinary study of rights and consideration of his conduct in the context of the unity of science and Philosophy. approaches. Unlike others. scientists involved in similar issues, L. sought to unite all the existing ideas and theories into a unified theory of biology, animal behavior (ethology).
For L. greatest interest are the problems associated with identifying DOS. mechanisms and characteristics of the prehistory and protokultury rights, with the study of processes of co-evolution of his psyche and culture, with his explanation of ecology. conditionality as the higher nervous activity and decomp. types of cultural. L. developed the theory, according to Roy-all behavior can serve as the unity of the hereditary and acquired. In addition to the instincts of a man, as in higher animals, there are legacies. images of perception (Gestalt), they form the basis for the formation of cultural images that lie at the origins of the cultural world view.
Basic Fixes. methods of solving problems of interest to L. considered relatively-history. (comparison of behaviors decomp. organisms to reconstruct their filogenetich. history), the method of thinking, reconstruction (the method of investigation or teleonomichesky, as opposed to teleological), a holistic approach. Based on the integrated use of these methods for studying human A. came to the conclusion of the special significance of ritual behavior for the genesis of culture. This ritual is interpreted as the result of adaptation of animals to changing environmental conditions, as a universal behavioral act peculiar to any highly organized beings. L. noted that ritualization involves symbolization, when behavioral act loses its immediate. value, which gives impetus to the development of culture. Thus, cultural processes that lead to the formation of a human. ceremonies (ceremonies), are identified with filogenetich. process of the ritual of animal behavior. In the process of ritualization are born, new institutions adapt to-rye become the basis for the development of a human. Culture. According to L., ritualization has three characteristics: a signal value associated with sewage aggression, invariance, autonomy. In addition to the ritual based kulturogeneza are humane. mind, language, ability to aggression.
Since t. sp. L., the mind has a dual significance: it promotes the development of fit, reactions, increasing the potency rights; mind as the ability to abstr. Thinking without a strictly logical. and mental processing leads to the destruction of culture, of the Society, the man himself. The presence of mind contributes to a person the ability to experiment with the outside world, which leads to the appearance of the first tools and techniqu. Invention Rights. Labor stands for A. as an activity peculiar to man, and the resultant characteristics of its Physiological. and Biological. nature (lack of natures. means of attack and defense).
Abstr. thinking and language are the basis of ability to transmit human supra-individual experience, which determines in fact the very possibility of cultural development.
Since t. sp. L., . greatest importance for the social and cultural behavior of man is his ability to aggression, . to-paradise actualized in the form of 'militant enthusiasm' - the instinctive reaction, . formed in the phylogeny and drawn in sharp those cultural development,
. 'Militant enthusiasm' is to motivate, motivation for kulturoporozhdayuschey, creative. human activity (the creation of cultural values), and kulturorazrushayuschey, destructive (revolution, war, etc.). 'Militant enthusiasm' - a struggle for human socio-cultural values, to the rye-sanctified cultural tradition. Values can act in a particular (family, nation, homeland) or abstract-shape. L. believed that the mechanism of 'militant enthusiasm', associated with the development of culture, includes a set of values to be protected, rye, clearly def. enemy image of these values, 'Wednesday accomplices' who share these values. On the basis of the arts, enhancing one or Multi base. elements 'militant enthusiasm' manages humane. behavior. Manipulation of human behavior in modern. on-ve achieved with the help of ersatz values of mass culture, which leads to activation of an enemy, an increase of aggressiveness, to war as a necessary form of existence of culture. Cultural forms, withdrawing aggressive person, are in addition to wars ersatz objects of cultural and gaming activities, sports, entertainment. L. stressed that culture should teach people soznat. Control of aggressive reaction. If not, then the development of culture leads to a crisis of fit, human instincts, which makes then the most humane global crisis. Culture.
Aggression is treated L. as specificity. violation of instinct, to-ing aimed at maintaining life. L. opposed psihoanalitich. concept of the role and place of the death instinct in the development of a human. culture, replacing it with his theory of 'militant enthusiasm' and 'territory. self-determination 'Rights. Failure to curb humane. aggressiveness, coupled with the constant shortage of territory due to population growth, leads to disruption of the stable development of culture. In this case, the culture loses its function - it ceases to act as a way to save individually purchased, but generally valid information or the ability.
Culture as nadfilogenetich. Education has historically acquired patterns of behavior to-rye underlie cultural traditions. Cultural achievements are associated with fixing a human. qualities and patterns of behavior, to-rye primarily influenced by individual modifications through education, training, socialization.
L. believed that the development of culture is accelerated pace and accompanied by an increase of crises. The crisis of culture relate to both the nature of man, to-ing 'not good enough for her priv. culture ', and with a mismatch rate of development of culture and civilization. The history of culture can be likened to the history of interspecific struggle: while culture is developed independently, it is complicated, refined, enriched, contributing to the conservation obschechelovech. genofund. Further evolution leads to a loss of cultural identity, the loss of its closure. Erasing the boundaries between cultures indicates the termination of cross-cultural selection, in the cut-those which comes stagnation.
Ultimately, the crisis of culture is determined by the distortion of the instincts. Culture should not be repressive: it ensures the development of dialectical. unity inherited and assimilated and the recognition of the value relevance of Natural Science. inclinations Rights. If culture results sverhregulirovannosti biol. forms of human existence, the global crisis of culture is inevitable.
L. described signs of this crisis in his famous book 'The eight deadly sins of civilized mankind' (1973). Factors, . causing a crisis of culture, . he attributes the overpopulation of the Earth, . leads to a shortage area and an overabundance of communication; pollution, . associated with the loss of humanity prospects, accelerating the pace of development, . coupled with illusory goals; 'softening of the senses', . degradation natures,
. sensations, strong emotions, deafness, the accumulation of genetic. marriage, genetic. degradation, . associated with the ideology of equality, rejection of tradition, . struggle of generations as intraspecific confrontation, . lack of continuity; subjection to mankind doctrines, . Manipulation of human behavior through the ideology, . absolute faith in the power of science, invention of self-destruction technology, . nuclear,
T. Fr., modern. culture for L. - Manifestation involutional processes in the history of mankind.
Eden L. had a great influence on the development of concepts sovr. sociobiology, the development of the theory of gene-culture coevolution Wilson and Lamzdena, the practice of anthropology. research.