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MFA (Mead), Margaret

( American anthropologist)

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Biography MFA (Mead), Margaret
(1901-1978) - Amer. anthropologist, professor of New York., Yale, Columbia University, Comrade, a prominent pacifist, antirasovogo, ecology. and ekumenich. movements. Disciple of Boas and Benedict, M. to develop a leading issue of the school - 'culture and identity' - in three areas: research on problems of socialization of children, the cultural meaning of sex roles, social and cultural dimension of personality. Central to the concept of M. is the assertion that the cultural character of a set of patterns of mental. life due to culture. Empiricism, the basis of this concept - twenty-five field studies of M. archaic. cultures with the use of projective tests, photo and kinoopisany. Initial mirovozzrench. and theor. set M. include: a) limiting the criteria of cultural relativization rule until failure of the dichotomy of 'primitive - civilized' as a Eurocentric prejudice in the spirit of functional schools (Malinowski, . Radcliffe-Brown), b) neo-Kantian gnoseologich,
. model that sees science only as a learning process decomp. truth, including religious, c) humanitarian-Christ. ecumenism, assessing mysticism, atheism, and social reformism as decomp. type rel. energy d) Philosophical. A semantics. Lovejoy, according to the nature of swarm-societies of consciousness in Concrete. Culture is defined by a set of key concepts for this culture and their interpretations. Following his first expedition in 1925-26 to about. Tau (Samoa), M. published material, which became a scientific sensation - a conclusion about the absence of an archaic culture specificity. conflicts of adolescence, which implied that the problems of youth in the West are purely social sources. In 1931-33 on the basis to compare the study of three tribes of New Guinea M. put forward a hypothesis about the dependence of sexual behavior from the principles of culture and, hence, the relativity of the norms of sexual behavior to-heaven had a tremendous influence on the ideology of feminism. In 1936-50 under the ethnographer, studies the people of Bali have M. develops a new relationship to the archaic. rituals - both to the specificity. manifestations of the universal kosmich. feelings underlying all religions, including Christianity. At this time, M. with P. Benedict arranges compare study types th. measures aimed at overcoming the cultural stereotypes. Taking up the theory th. nature, M. moved closer to the representatives of neo-Freudian schools 'culture and identity'. M. prompted English. ethnographer J. Goreru idea to link features of Russian. th. nature adopted in Russian. family practice, the duration. tugogo swaddling infants under the influence of-cerned children allegedly formed the habit of patience and obedience. Although M. denied a direct causal link between the ways of childcare and the type of culture, 'diaper determinism' entered the history of science as an example of mechanism.
In the history of culture M. There are three types of cultures: postfigurative in to-ryh children learn from their ancestors; configurational in-ryh to both children and adults learn from equal, peer; prefigurative in to-ryh adults learn well from their children. Concept M. captures the dependence of intergenerational relationships on the rate of Scientific and Technical. and social development, emphasizes that the intergenerational transmission of culture includes not only inform. flow from parents to children, youth and interpretation sovr. situations affecting the older generation.

Hence, societies, resonance was written by M. with J. Baldwin's book about racial prejudice and a number of publications - research on Amer. Indians, destroying formed in the public mind the image of 'savage'. In the 60-ies. impressed nigilistich. trends kontrkulturnogo Youth Movement M. refused etich. the concept of functionalism, criticizing his early works for the absolute relativization of the concepts of good and evil. Theor. and kulturologich. Research M. cumulative; in utopian. project of the World 'culture of participation'. In the first stage, in its view, should be implemented semiotich. unity of mankind, ie. a universal system of graphs, a single geophysical. calendar, etc. on the second - to forge a common language. The transition to this 'live Utopia' M. conceives as a result of two 'quiet revolution': technological. modernization 'Third World' and 'revolution metaphors' in the developed world, in the course of a swarm-seductive demonic concept of 'hell' to oust the living image of 'paradise', created from the archaic myths, children's fantasies and the fruits of creativity ekumenich. elite. This revolution will lead to the creation of a new humane. generation oriented paradise. The unit residences in the new culture must become a 'hotbed average' to-ing more than the nuclear family, but less than the tribal clan. Spiritual existence it must be ensured combination liturgich. catholicity and liberal values of individualism. Eden M. continue to have a serious impact on etnogr. and kulturologich. research, as well as Sociology. School symbolic. interactionism, although criticized for apologetichnost in the analysis of primitive cultures.

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