Plesner (Plessner) Helmut( deutsch philosopher and sociologist)
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Biography Plesner (Plessner) Helmut
(1892-1985) - It. philosopher and sociologist, one of the founders of Philosophy. anthropology special. Discipline. Student Win-delbanda, E. Lusk, X. Driesch, Husserl. Since 1926 - Professor. Cologne. In the years of Nazism in exile, Prof.. in Groningen (Netherlands), from 1951 - in Gottingen.
The concept of culture is constructed from P. on the basis of his Philosophy. Anthropology. He suggested that 'scientific philosophy of life' as a phenomenological. description of the 'stages of organic'. The living is different from nonliving matter that itself defines its border and considers himself inside this border. Hence - Basic. Characteristics of the living - 'propositional' (from the Latin. pono - I think). Following in the tradition, P. distinguishes between plant, animal and humane. organization. The principle of the lower limit in the implementation of the organization already provides the possibility of a higher form. Unlike plants, animals indirectly included in the environment. There are different authorities for contact with the environment and the purely internal. bodies. So unnecessary and center for their vzaimooposredstvovaniya; therefore propositional animal - centric. Center as it were distanced from the living body, but not yet aware of itself as a center. To make this possible, you need a 'neobektiviruemy pole entity', 'who visited a I', ie. 'eccentric. propositional '- hl. characteristic human. Man, Thus, 'put to nothing', without any determinate being. It displayed 'DOS. anthropological. laws'. Natural law. artificial means that a person has to balance its 'set to nothing' cut-ter of its activities, kvaziprirodnymi on weight and objectivity. By law, mediated by the immediacy of eccentricity affects that person is aware of his consciousness of the world understands that all the objective is established only for his consciousness, and disappointing in its immediacy. This explains the discrepancy intentions of their expression and implementation. In a medium is really happening 'refraction', so that people have to always go beyond the created, again and again to express themselves, to try to implement the intentions. Hence, the third law - the law utopian. Location: man needs miroosnovy idea, but so is the negation of the absolute need. Existing as a body, the body (inside. world) and outside the body on the eccentric. position, the man in the unity of these three definitions is psihofiz. face. But to do it - by virtue of eccentricity - should distinguish itself in the individual and overall I. He must understand that for themselves, and others should look beyond the limits of the unit in the field, we are, 'co-world', ie. spirit. Thus, sociality, and (we), and the historicity (restlessness self-realization), and expression (expression in t.ch. and through the tongue) are the most important anthropological. Specifications.
A related interpretation of the concept of culture. Specifically human is for P. aspiration to unreal. No morals, without attachment to unreal standards, a man can not exist. 'Only because of the nature of it - being half-hearted and (what is the essential way entails that) is over ourselves, by artificial means (for him) means to come into equilibrium with itself and with the world. This does not mean that culture is an overcompensation of inferiority, this meant quite dopsihologich., Ontich. need '.
Thus, anthropological. interpretation of certain phenomena, often associated with P. with the notion of eccentricity and the idea of the distance. For example, a study of laughter and tears - typically a human. behavior - said the loss of self-control as the gap between personality and body, a smile is the expression of distance from the feelings expressed by. Dissociation of man from himself - a key point in the interpretation of the concept of social role.
P. had a great influence in shaping the philosophy and sociology of culture, mainly in Germany and the Netherlands. In the present. Time planned new increase in interest in his concepts.