STEWARD, Julian Haynes( The American anthropologist, ethnologist)
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Biography STEWARD, Julian Haynes
(1902-1972)-American. anthropology, ethnology. Student Kroeber and Lowie. Despite the isolation of the position to Rui-he was against all schools of Amer. Anthropology, and the desire to develop a completely inde approach to the study of culture, experienced a mean effect of ideas Kroeber and L. White. He has made things, contribute to the development of Amer. Ethnography - published them entsiklopedich. seven-guide to South Indian culture. America (1946-59) still has not lost its significance.
In the history of science with. came primarily as a theorist, formulated the concept of a multiserver evolution of culture, level of socio-cultural integration, cultural type, as well as by environmen. approach to the study CONCRETE. cultures.
With. analyzed all existing concepts of cultural-historical. process and identified three ERP. type: the concept of a single line of evolution (evolutionism 19.) followers to swarm-allocated under the progressive development of cultures; the concept of a common (universal), the evolution of L. Whyte, G. Child, to the paradise-enabled open the general laws of cultural evolution, evolution of the concept of a multiserver S., Effects of swarm-author confined Dep. regions hist. repeatability and processes of parallel development.
Continuing the line of analysis of cultural change, C. critical understanding of the classification of cultures by cultural area, cultural patterns, belief systems, etc.. and contrasted them with the classification of cultural types of cultures.
Cultural type characterized by a set of neck-ryh elected functionally related traits, for rye-present in two or more cultures, but not necessarily all. This type of culture differed from the cultural area, as in the description of the latter takes into account all the elements of culture. In 1955 C. somewhat changed their approach and identified the cultural type as a set of traits that form the core of culture, arising as a consequence of adaptation to the environment and have the same level of integration. At this stage analysis. made a serious attempt to identify historical. types of relationships, to-rye enable classify and compare cultures.
Considering the features of Concrete. culture as a consequence of adaptation of a human. communica-wah to the environment, SV, drawing on the traditions of Amer. anthropology, in particular the concept of culture A. White, formulates a method of cultural ecology, to-heaven finds its development in anthropology Tues. gender. 20 at.