Tilly (Tillich), Paul( German-American hristtansky thinker, theologian, philosopher of culture)
Comments for Tilly (Tillich), Paul
Biography Tilly (Tillich), Paul
(1886-1965) German-American. KHrist. philosopher, theologian, philosopher of culture. He received his theological education in the un-max Berlin, Breslau, Halle. Dr philosophy and theology. Both thesis - Philosophy. and theological. - Focused on the philosophy of the late Schelling, which has had a special influence on the formation of theological and Philosophy. positions T. Prior to 1933 - Professor. philosophy in Marburg and Frankfurt. Campaigners' rel. socialism 'in the 20-30-ies. Germany. With the advent of the Nazis, emigrated to the U.S.. Since 1933 - Professor. New York. From 1955 - Harvard University, Comrade. Hd. problem of creativity T. - Christianity and Culture: the place of Christianity in modern. culture and spiritual experience of man, the destiny of Europe. Culture and Europe. humanity in the light of the Gospel Good News. These problems are considered T. in terms of ontology and anthropology, cultural studies and philosophy of history, Christology and biblical hermeneutics. T. seeks to systematize its doctrine, the construction of 'The systematic. Theology ', internally linked by a single motive. Theology and Ontology internally united, they can not divide, referring to the common grounds of its Cultural. Trying to build its system as an alternative to two extremes of Protestant thought - 'liberal theology' 19., 'Dissolving' faith in morality and secular culture, and 'dialectical. Theology ', which denies any connection between them - T. brings the concept of God with the category of being, understood as the foundation of all things, to the paradise of the original all-divisions in t.ch. separation of 'immanent' and 'transcendent'. God and 'transcendent' world, and 'immanent' to him as the basis and depth of the world, directly apprehend a man in his spiritual experience. Therefore T. prefers to use the term 'Absolute', which highlights the immediacy of the experience of being a man of the Unqualified. 'Of course there money, and not being. It describes what is our limit, and hence the unconditional care '- writes T. Caring person on the unconditional sense of their existence shows that people internally connected with being with God, but is estranged from him in his earthly existence, and therefore the state of 'ultimate concern' is inseparable from a human. being. This state of care and recovery of meaning, 'longing for unconditional' and there is religion, the fundamental characteristic of human and humane basis. Culture. The criterion for the depth of culture for T. is religion. experience, always present in the culture, at least implicitly and paradoxically. By theology, or theology of culture, T. drawn in all his works - from the first public speech in Berlin. Kant on-ve in 1919 to one of the last works ( 'The Theology of Culture', 1959). Two DOS. settings determine the person 'theology of culture': critic sovr. Europes. roots and the increasingly devastated and meaningless, and the search for rel. measurement in every culture, as well as in being human, morality and history. Both installation known KHrist. originally thought: the first - as the opposition 'Academy and the Church', 'Athens and Jerusalem', proclaimed by Tertullian, the second - as patriotic. path of consecration, churching, the Christianization of culture (in particular, the Hellenic wisdom as 'detovoditelnitsy to Christ'). Last Fixed specificity. orientation thinkers quest rus. Early Renaissance. 20 in. and after - in Russian. emigration, contemporaries T.: C. Bulgakov, Fedotov, Ilyin, Vysheslavtsevu, Zenkovskaya. Attempts to 'dogmatic. study of culture '(P. Bulgakov) and recreate the name of Christ. culture could not excite the West, where the divergence of secular culture and Christianity became more profound thinkers and placed in a dilemma 'either - or' bowing either to a radical reassessment of European values. culture, or to distort KHrist. Faith in favor sovr. reality ( 'this world') - the fate of many currents zap. theological modernism. ODA. consonance philosophy of culture T. these movements in Russian. thought, obviously, can explain not only the common roots, in particular the philosophy of Schelling (had an impact on Russian. thought through the philosophy of unity), but also the impact on T. Dostoyevsky, as well as Russian. emigration.
Rel. experience, according to T., it should be understood existentially (the proximity of T. Kierkegaard and Europe. existentialism is the most obvious), as a state of marginal concern course to-Roe - whether we call it God, being or board-l. another name - can not be for us an external object. Unconditional always present in the depths of a human. existence and perpetrated by its cultural and historical. world: 'Religion is the substance of culture, - says T. - culture is a form of religion'. Depending on how to relate the substance and form, T. identifies three types of cultures: 'teonomnuyu', 'autonomous' and 'heteronomous'. All three are ideal types, in pure form can not be found in the history. In every era there are all three types, but one of them dominates. 'Teonomnoy' T. call culture, all forms of swarm-consciousness pervades and directs the presence of the Unqualified. Culture teonomna not in the sense that God directly considers its laws, but that it is in all its manifestations, is open to the unconditional and turned to him. Divine is 'no problem, but the premise', his 'givens' apparent givenness of something else. Thus religion becomes a special form of life or culture, other forms of external control, but permeates the inside, all actions, thoughts and experiences of human. Theonomy removes the distance between religious and secular culture in general becomes an expression of absolute values, its symbols hidden answers to 'ultimate questions'. In the 'autonomous' culture as a cultural form would overshadow rel. substance, it tries to assert itself autonomous mind, not preoccupied with 'ultimate questions' and focused on this world. Autonomy replaces mystical rational, analyzes, and then to implement rac. synthesis, introduces Tekhniki. control in all spheres of life based on individual moral perfection, and religion - on a personal decision. However, autonomy is not opposed Theonomy and unconditional. Autonomous religious culture not directly but indirectly - through the form that has 'logosnoy' structure, through the Logos, immanent reality. Autonomy means the adoption of structures and laws of reality as they are represented in the mind of man, the laws and structures of his mind. History is an alternation of periods with a predominance teonomnogo and autonomous principle (the idea Florensky similar thoughts about the alternation in the history of 'Wed-century.' And 'Renaissance' types of crops). Examples of autonomous cultures can serve as a classical. Greece, Enlightenment 18., Europe. culture with ser. 19. at present. time. If theonomy is eventually lost, the autonomy of culture can not be suppressed, theonomy can not be recreated artificially, by way of autonomy must be passed to the end until it is exhausted internally. Autonomy is able to exist as long as it can be removed from religion. traditions of the past, without losing the finish, with her. The history of autonomous cultures, more and more lose their spiritual foundation is the story of their gradual but steady decline of devastation and. However, any attempts to artificially create or slow down this process, impose an autonomous culture external to her law, religious or secular, are ruinous for the culture, and religion. These attempts, for a T-rgh. uses the concept of 'heteronomy', ignore logosnuyu structure of peace and human. Reason. Religion, acting heteronomous, ceases to be the substance of culture and source of its vitality, it becomes part of culture and shares with it the fate of its decline. Facets of cultural types of mobile: theonomy can degenerate into heteronomy, which will cause a reaction of autonomy (for example - the transition from late Wed-Ages to the Renaissance in Europe). Autonomy, after a temporary triumph, may again be partially removed in the new Theonomy, as at the end of the ancient world and in the anti-autonomous position of Protestant orthodoxy and the Counter-Reformation. However, autonomy does not oppose Theonomy as it resists heteronomy; theonomy is the answer to the question of autonomy for the prisoner, on to-ing in the autonomous culture is not the answer - the question of limiting the meaning of life and culture. Ideal Theonomy never fully realize within history: substance and form, trying to synthesize, always destroy reached equilibrium. However, even in a fully autonomous culture, which is sovr. Europes. culture persists dimension Unqualified, even in the negative feelings of emptiness and meaninglessness. That is, on TV, rel. meaning of works of Kafka, Baudelaire, abstr. painting or theater of the absurd. Loss of culture, her sense of substance, the alienation of man from 'his own. foundations and depth ', the concentration of its activities on Methodological. study and transformation of the external world and going away the loss of depth measurements in relation to reality - the symptoms of the fact that 20 per. reveals the limits of autonomous culture. But in doing so, emphasizes T., opens the way for new Theonomy. 'The decisive events leading to the search for meaning in the 20., - Writes T. in book. 'Courage to be' - was the loss of God in the 19. ". Particularly now, when this loss and its implications for the rights and culture are clear, there is creative. tension and expectation of a new Theonomy, the implementation of a swarm-marks a turning point in history - 'kairos' (Greek. word for time, in the sense that is different from the word 'chronos' - computing, qty.,' hronologich. " time; 'kairos' - time of sale, deeds, implementation). The meaning of history, on TV, is associated with such moments of time being (God) is revealed to man. In the New Testament kairos - the time incarnation of God's Word in Jesus Christ, while death on the cross and resurrection of the Savior, the time, 'when the time will be no more' - the time to establish the kingdom of God. The light of this unity. Kairos falls on the events of the time, the empirical. history and the history of culture, to the paradise-like part of history in general, sent by Providence. Kairos is the coming of Jesus Christ, writes T. article 'Kairos'. Kairos in its general and specificity. sense for the philosopher of history is every turning point in history, when the eternal judge and transforms the temporal. Kairos in its special sense - kairos decisive fate of the current situation, there is a new arrival on the ground Theonomy secularized and devastated the autonomous culture. Eschatological. perspective, in a T-Roy. sees sovr. culture and about her reasons, the presence of Cultural Studies is not only empirically-horizontal, but also spiritually-vertical axes, correlation kulturologich. estimates with a common sense of history and its fate are the dignity, putting 'Theology of Culture' in a number of kulturologich., Philosophy. and theological. 20 in the classics.