Toynbee (Toynbee) Arnold Joseph( English historian, philosopher, diplomat and societies, activities)
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Biography Toynbee (Toynbee) Arnold Joseph
(1889-1975), English. historian, philosopher, diplomat and societies, activities, creating one of the most original versions of the concept of local civilizations. If the 'early' T. (10-e gg.) Saw in th. State-ve OCH. unit of world history, and 'moderate' (20-40-e gg.) searching for such, in the local civilizations, the 'late' (50-70-e gg.) moves from the study of the higher religions in an inclusive, 'ecumenical' vision of human development. That is what distinguishes it from Spengler, who held that the existence of mankind - 'empty words'. For T. completely unacceptable naturalism author 'Decline of the West', his conclusion of total disintegration and impermeability of cultures to each other. Constructions T. based on the teachings of Jung's 'collective unconscious', as well as on the 'philosophy of life' Bergson. 'Core' worldview T. - Religion. pantheism 'ekshristianskogo' wing. The religious-mystical. look at the history and vnimat. study of factual material, recorded by the empirical regularity, the K-ryh based tipologich. design of globally-theor. plan - to distinguish between creativity trait T.
Constant feature of the tribal nature of man are, according to T., the unity of history, viewed in a variety of local civilizations. These T. attributes inherent in human consciousness, will, ability to discern between good and evil, religion. It is a religion and gives an opportunity to unite people in history, their unity in the search for final meaning of life. If the ob-treated at T. as a holistic system of relations between people, in their understanding of the culture he agrees with P. Begbie,-ing to see it nadbiologich. regulators of human behavior, and Kroeber, speaking about the value of its nature.
Civilization, elected by the T. as the unit of the division of historical. process is identified with the state of the Society, with a rum-appears creative. elite, free from involvement in the reproduction of material life. Belong to the administrators, professional soldiers and priests are endowed, by T., mystical gift. gust, leading to a universal world-history. process. They create a unique spiritual character of each civilization, which finds expression in its symbols. Important step in civilization occurred during the 'neolitich. Revolution. Along with the emergence of centers of civilization in the Nile, the Euphrates and Tigris in 3 millennium BC. previously dominated the life of mankind asunder, the trend was opposed in the form of a unifying. T. speaks of the existence in the history of 36 civilizations, including in-ryh them stand out above all fully developed and failed (Nestorian KHrist., Monophysite KHrist., Far-western. Christian and others). Civilization, fully developed, it divides into independent and Sat -. First, . in turn, . divided into civilization, . not related to other (sredneamer., . Andean), . civilization, . are not derived from other (Sumerian-Akkadian, . egip., . Aegean and others); civilization, . generated by other (Syrian, . ADF., . Orthodox-Christ., . zap,
Initially T. believed that the ancient history provides the only unique model, revealing all the facets of the process, traversed the local civilization. Later, under fire, he put forward two more classical. models of civilization development - China, . K-swarm of efforts to realize the ideal of universal state-va interrupted by periods of triumph disconnect, . trends and disorder, . and Diasporic, . associated with the existence in the history of peoples (Armenians, . Jews, . levantiytsy), . living among other, . but loses his own features,
. identity. Although these civilizational model and considered as a complement of antique, it has always remained for T. basis for mapping the evolution of the local civilization, passing the stage of genesis, growth, 'fracture' and fall. The formation of civilization is the answer to the challenge of social and natural environment. Its genesis of the T. linked with the activities of 'creative. minorities', able to accept the challenge and give him a fitting response. Following the birth of a civilization is its growth, implemented creative. elite, led by a mystical "vital breakthrough '. Criteria for the growth of civilization - an increase of its spiritual independence and the self -. Breakdown of T. connects with the loss of power and complacency elite, manifested in the 'idolizatsii ephemeral institutions' exorbitant exaltation of technology, 'intoxication of victory', etc.. The reason - the loss of 'elan vital', the outcome - the loss of civilization ext. unity and the ability to self-determination. At the stage of disintegration of 'creative. minority 'is unable to resist the rebellion' within. proletariat 'and the invasion of barbarians -' external proletariat '. However, the disintegration trend is its polarity integration, manifested in the creation of a universal state-va, the universal church and the barbaric war of gangs. And if the universal state of barbarism and the formation - of the past, then the universal church always belongs to the future, carrying out a bridge in the history.
In the late period of the activity of T. emphasized that the tendency of unity decomp. civilizations dominates the isolationist. It manifests itself not only in their coexistence, cultural exchange and the generation of kinship. civilizations, but also in the phenomenon of a renaissance, reviving the traditions of forgotten values in the new historical. context. Merge, a trend in human history, largely associated with religions, referred to as T. 'higher'. Thereunder, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Buddhism, Christianity and Islam, it is particularly appreciated the role of the last three world religions.
The fate of the unity of mankind in this century, more than ever, depends on the evolution of West. civilization in a state of crisis since the beginning of modern times, she lost KHrist. foundations; win out 'posthrist. ideology '- nationalism, individualism, and communism. Criticizing the selfishness of the developed Western countries, T. encourages them to realize the importance of addressing the global challenges of our. State-va decomp.. systems must follow the path of peaceful coexistence, the use of scientific and Technical. revolution, born of western civilization. Simultaneously T. believed iudeohrist. monotheism, cultivating the spirit of conquering the world, must give way to a pantheistic. religiosity, designed to eliminate the spirit of violence against nature and contribute to the unity of mankind