UISSLER (Wissler) Clarke( The American anthropologist, researcher in the field Fiz. anthropology, ethnography and ethnology)
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Biography UISSLER (Wissler) Clarke
(1870-1947) - Amer. anthropologist and researcher in the field Financials. anthropology, ethnography and ethnology. Degree of Doctor of Philosophy received for work in psychology at Columbia University are. However, Boas worked in the reign of Amer. Museum of Natural Science. history, from 1924 to 1940 he taught at Yale University are.
In the early works have. on Financials. Anthropology greatly influenced by Boas, together with to-rsh he spent antropometrich. survey of schoolchildren in Massachusetts. Working at the Museum of Natural Science. story,. met raznoobr. anthropological. materials - etnogr. Data and descriptions - has prepared a series of exhibitions on Indian crafts and art. Following the advice of Boas, Y. distributed materials exposures by region and tribe, to a greater extent than on cultural types. This system of processing and storing data has beings contribute to the development of museum studies and design concept of cultural area (region).
Field studies have. conducted among the tribes of North-Amer. Great Plains. For two decades, the Great Plains have become the most thoroughly studied in etnogr. against Northern Territory. America. U. prepared a thorough description of culture, cultural values, myths and tales, material culture, social organization. He was one of the first researchers, pointing to a so-called. 'joking relationship'. U. find documentary svidelstva spread of riding, to see and describe the transformation of the neck-ryh cultural elements of the region as a cut-t acquaintance with the horse, he was also one of the first anthropologists who have used the early historical. sources. Studying the culture within the Dep. region or tribe, Y. tried to fix the spread of cultural traits and the interaction of cultures with the natural environment.
In the book, devoted to Amer. Indians (1917) have. identified DOS. cultural regions. The criteria for determining the range, he used the main characteristics of the natural environment and to distinguish between features of material culture, outlined areas of the neck-and adaptation ryh cultural traits.
His subsequent work (Man and Culture. 1923; The Relation of Nature to Man in Aboriginal America. 1926) have also been devoted to problems of diffusion and adaptation, based on the two OCH. positions: the first - the ways and options for the dissemination of cultural traits, the second - a conclusion about the same age cultural elements originating from the same territory.
Y. developed neck-rye templates (samples) diffusion: the spread of cultural elements ripple, and the farther from the center of the element is found (the wider the circle), the greater the age of its existence. This concept has stimulated the compilation The systematic. descriptions of the spread of cultural traits, but, unfortunately, it did not play the role of a springboard for further historical and functional interpretations.
In addition to the problems of the dynamics. held the following fundamentally important to the culture of research questions: the form and content of culture, the universal pattern, the interaction of cultural elements, the genesis of culture, the relationship between man and culture, etc..
The concept of universal cultural pattern that has become cut-specifically-history. (etnogr.) studies have
. Scheme of an integrated cultural complex, . his proposed, . contained the following items: speech (language, . writing system, etc.), material culture (food, . housing, . Transportation, . clothes, . tools, . production), art (all kinds), mythology and scientific knowledge; rel,
. practice, family and social systems; ownership, governance, war. Scheme I. entered the science 20 in. like creatures, step in the development compares. Research.
Unclaimedness thorough and rich in material developments have. regrettable, but he became one of the few anthropologists of the early twentieth century, to the rum-managed to bridge the gap between isolationism boasovskogo period and anthropology ser. 20 at.