WARNER (Warner), William Lloyd( The American sociologist and social anthropologist)
Comments for WARNER (Warner), William Lloyd
Biography WARNER (Warner), William Lloyd
(1898-1970)-American. Sociology and Social Anthropology. In 1926 he graduated from the University of California-t. In 1926-29 conducted anthropological field. Study in Australia since 1929 he worked at Harvard University are. Participated in the experiment Houtornskom E. Mayo. Since 30-ies. conducted extensive field research in g. Newburyport, pc. Massachusetts (in the history of science has entered under the name 'Yankee City'). Field studies were conducted by him in New England, County Clare (Ireland). In 1935-59 he worked at the Faculty of Sociology and Anthropology those Chicago. Zap, from 1939 prof., since 1959 Professor. Social Studies Michigan, Zap. The subject of studies have. were race relations, problems of equality and inequality, social structure, stratification, and symbolic. Life sovr. Urban communica-va, the role of large organizations and corporations in modern. on-ve, the relationship between social system and the mentally. Disease. Basic Fixes. works: 'Social life sovr. communica-va '(1941),' Statusbar system in modern. communica-ve '(1942),' The social system in Amer. of ethnic. groups '(1945),' Living and the Dead '(1959),' Democracy in Dzhounsville '(1949),' Social Class in America '(1949),' emergent amer. Reports of '(1967).
Y. one of the first attempt to apply the experience of socio-anthropological. approach, he obtained during the field study AUS. Aborigines, to the analysis sovr. Urban communica-va West. He was convinced that a human. nature essentially always and everywhere the same, although human behavior and undergoes ODA. metamorphosis under the influence of cultural environment. U. used and taken out of social anthropology, method of participant observation, and socio-anthropological. categorical apparatus, first applied only for the description and analysis of the primitive-in. This approach - useful evristich. tool - and let Y. develop a fresh look at sovr. on-in, show him in an unexpected angle. The reaction was highly controversial: some researchers have adopted it enthusiastically, others met him warily and skeptically.
The most famous works acquired U., devoted to the analysis of social structure and social stratification sovr. ob-va. Social stratification is regarded them as a functional prerequisite for the existence of sovr. Industrial ob-va, its internal. stability and equilibrium. Assuming that each of of has this or that 'the dominant structure' associated with 'cross-cutting theme of' the culture, Y. believed that in contrast to, for example. from AUS. ob-va, where the recurring theme is the relationship and the related mythology cyclic. updates, and the frame of the Society formed a system of kinship. relations, in a typical sovr. amer. communica-ve Yankee City (and correspondingly in amer. on-ve in general) are the dominant cultural theme of self-fulfillment, achievement, success, and DOS. organizing structure of the Society - ensuring the realization of these aspirations a system of class stratification. Position in the social structure (or status) is determined by such characteristics, . education level, . Occupation, . value of status and income, an individual belonging to a particular class is reflected in all aspects of his life (friendship, . acquaintances, . participation in the activities of clubs and decomp,
. organizations, habits, manners and speech, appearance, etc.).
Y. developed one of the first The systematic. theories of social stratification. He proposed to distinguish six social classes: upper-upper, upper-middle, upper-lower, lower, upper, lower, middle, and lower-lower. For empirical. study of the class structure they have developed techniques of measurement, the later widespread use: 'index of status characteristics' (ISC) and 'assessment of the participation' (EP).
In the works of 'The Living and the Dead' and 'Amer. Life: Dream and Reality '(1953, 1962), W. funktsionalistskuyu continuing the tradition of Durkheim, Radcliffe-Brown and Malinowski, subjected to the study of symbolic. Life sovr. amer. Urban communica-wah and attempted to develop a general sociology, the theory of symbolism. The collective life of any report va (whether local or tribal Aboriginal communica-va contemporary United States) supported the general symbolic. basis. Symbolic unity. values of the objects of experience connects different generations and ensures the continuity of social life of a human. team. Culture as the totality of symbolic. system Y. divided into three subsystems: technology, . subsystem, . performs the function of adapting people to the outside natural world, social organization (or a moral order), . performs the function of adapting people to each other; religion, . or a system of sacred symbols, . connecting people with God and sacred objects,
. These cultural subsystems perform primarily a function of adaptation and they form a common context in a made-ryh interaction between members of the Society, techn. characters empirical. verification for the truth and falsehood, of the true value of these characters depends on the efficiency of human decision utilitarian tasks, and thus its Financials. survival. Moral symbolic. system sets the 'standards of right and wrong', they are often non-rational and do not represent the empirically existing objects, and the collective sense;
their function - to promote and control the interactions between members of the Society. 'Sverhestestv. symbolic. contexts formed rel. beliefs and rites, non-rational and non-logical, are myths, not amenable to any empirical. verification, but inspires, thanks to social memory, reaching from the past intense collective feeling, and thus have for people undoubted 'reality' and efficiency. Three types of symbolic. contexts - Technol., moral and supernatural - are closely intertwined. Within this teoret. Model U. attempted to analyze the wealth of empirical. material symbolic. life communica-va Yankee City (from symbolism his political campaign for election of mayor to the profound symbolism rel. the urban KHrist. community). Amer. sociologist Goffman called the book 'The Living and the Dead' the best description of the daily rituals in modern. communica-wah.