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Johan Huizinga

( Nederlands scientist, historian, theorist of culture)

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Biography Johan Huizinga
(1872-1945) - niderl. scientist, historian, theorist of culture. Prof.. Department of World History in Groningen. (from 1905) and Leiden. (from 1915) un-max. Key areas of activity X.: proper historiography, the development of the concept of world culture, critical. analysis sovr. era. He has made a lot of understanding of the subject and the method of historical. Science. Global study of the role of myth, fantasy in the world civilization reveals the mean commonality of interests with Mauss and Levi-Strauss. His appeal to social psychology, the study of mentality, way of Wed-century. life can see it directly. predecessor Franz. hist. Annales School. For X. characteristic of interest in the 'mature and breaks', turning an era when faced with the tradition obnovlencheskimi trends in the life of the islands (eg, the Reformation, the Renaissance, the situation in the Netherlands in 17.). Under the influence of Spengler X. addresses the problem of typology of cultures, morphological. analysis of cultural and historical. epochs. For X. characterized by an appeal to the study and analysis of social utopias, dreams in the history of civilization, 'eternal' to world culture (the dream of a 'golden age', bukolich. ideal of a return to nature, the Gospel, the ideal of poverty, rooted in ancient layers of culture knightly ideal, the ideal vozrozheniya antiquity, etc.). Of particular importance in the genesis and development of world culture X. gives game. Her civilizational role he sees in the pursuit of voluntarily established rules, to curb the element of passion. Game - the basis of humane. Hostels. X. stresses anti-authoritarian nature of the game, permitting the possibility of choice, the absence of oppression 'seriousness' - fetish views. Many of the X. 30-40-ies. contain criticism of mass culture; book 'In the shadow of tomorrow' is similar in this respect works Ortega Gosset, Jaspers, Marcel, and others. X. - Passionate and consecutively. antifascist. Basic Fixes. causes of the crisis sovr. zap. civilization X. sees clearly emerged tendencies to irrationalism and the intuitional philosophy and society. life in the cult dologicheskogo, violent mythology, especially in Germany, 30-ies. He points to the inevitable consequence: the moral relativization. values, collective self-interest, 'gipernatsionalizm', manifest themselves also in Intern. politics. Witness totalitarian regimes, X. stresses that 20 per. made history. science instrument of lies on behalf of history erected 'bloodthirsty idols, to-rye threatens to swallow the culture', History substituted demagogich. mixture of religion, mythology, science. X. maintains a deep faith in the possibility of history as objective knowledge and the moral. Mission History. knowledge as a form of man to overcome the limits of his life, 'transcendence' of their capabilities. X. calls for accountability to the historians of the-tion, to the future. The concept of culture for the X. primarily associated with self-consciousness of a free, morally Liability. individual as a member of the humane. kollektiva.Vysoky level of culture in a given period equilibrium between spiritual and material values: not 'absolute' height, . reached the culture or its individual factors (religion, . art, . equipment, etc.), . Consistency and cultural functions, . positive effect on the strength of the structure, . the style and rhythm of life on islands,
. Crisis sovr. science due to its desire to move beyond the knowable by reason. In the exact sciences, especially physics, X. inclined to see the 'crisis of growth'. Science differing freedom of mind, internationalization. nature of research, but has not consolidated enough to be a source of culture and, moreover, modern. direction of science operates more in terms of destabilization of the foundations of intellectual life, culture. One important factor in saving world civilization X. considers internationalism, to understand-ing as the preservation, to the extent possible, all individual and national, with the offering of the selfish. interest in the victim obschechelovech. welfare, peace on earth. Polit, parties, organizations, state-va, churches are not effective enough to create the foundations of a human. civilization level rise of civilization is not connected with the victory of one state-va, one race, one class. The basis of culture should be the rule of man over himself


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Johan Huizinga, photo, biography
Johan Huizinga, photo, biography Johan Huizinga  Nederlands scientist, historian, theorist of culture, photo, biography
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