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Scheler (Scheler) Max

( German philosopher and sociologist)

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Biography Scheler (Scheler) Max
(1874-1928) - It. philosopher and sociologist, founder of Philosophy. anthropology and anthropological. orientation in sociology, phenomenological. emotivistskoy axiology and the sociology of knowledge as separateness, discipline. He studied at the University of Jena max, Munich, Berlin. Views W. formed under the influence of neo-Kantianism, philosophy of life, phenomenology, among philosophers, influenced him - Aiken, Husserl, Nietzsche, E. Hartmann. In 1900-06 W. - Assistant professor at Jena University, those 1906-10 - Associate Professor of Philosophy in Munich, un-te. Since 1919 - Director of Cologne. Researchers. Inst of Social Sciences, Professor. Philosophy and Sociology of Cologne, Zap. 1928 W. invites Frankfurt, un-t, but he died soon after.
In the work W. allocated at least two dramatic turn to-rye can be divided into three periods: the transition from neo-to phenomenology and the phenomenology of an evolutionary pantheism. Axiology, Sociology and Philosophy. anthropology form DOS. theme of the last two periods. Its internal. nucleus in the second, phenomenological. period is teistich. personalism, and the third, or later, period - pantheistic. metaphysics ( 'metaphysics' means W. classically as 'first philosophy', 'ontology' - the doctrine of the being and essence of things).

In early works W. DOS interprets. Philosophy. flow to Germany. 19 early. 20 in. in search of his own. position to-ц¦цЁц+ he finds in the 'critical. metaphysics 'applying' noologich. method '. Its DOS. concepts - 'labor peace' and 'spiritual form of life', or 'spirit'. Essentially it was kulturologich. method-oriented study of phenomena of culture and created their humane. Energy.

Axiology W. is phenomenologically well-founded theory of values, their types and hierarchies, center, to the notion of-cerned is' material ', or' emotions. priori '.

The formal ethics of Kant, based on the notion of 'formal', or 'Rat. priori ', and ultimately to the rigor of duty, W. opposes 'material ethical values', . objective validity to the swarm-based on a priori data, . feelings of self-evident, . intentions - likes and dislikes, . love and hate, and so on: they are the 'material a priori', . allowing a person to any life experience to feel the value, . not yet formed their notions about,
. Values are arranged in a strictly hierarchic manner, . to-ing itself as a priori and objective: the value of sensual experience (pleasant - unpleasant), the value of life, . or vital values (noble - foul); spiritual values, . or the values of spiritual culture (good - evil, . beautiful - ugly, . true ~ false); rel,
. values or the values of the sacred (sacred - the profane). Non-ratsionalistich. nature and a priori objectivity 'material ethical values' W. contrasts irrationalism and value relativism of Nietzsche and the whole philosophy of life as an ideological trend.

In the context of values W. developing and teaching about the person, understood as the supreme spiritual act, a-rum concentrate all spiritual acts of humane. individuality. Teistich. personalism W. is the original religious and Philosophy. interpretation of the idea of God, to-ing is understood as the ultimate personality or the identity of all humane. personalities (past, present and future).

Sociology. In the period from 1912 to 1923 W. laid the foundations of 'phenomenological. Sociology ', developing the theory of social, including a dichotomy F. Tennis 'communica-in - on-in' as a special case. Results of their pursuit W. summarized in 'higher axioms of the sociology of knowledge' ( 'Problems of the sociology of knowledge'. CH. 2, 1926). Most famous became his 'sociology of knowledge' of the late period, as set out in the first part of this work, entitled 'The essence of the concept of the sociology of culture'. It represents a means. As the history of philosophy and metaphysics of the late Sh polemically directed against the "naturalistic." concepts of history and of the Society of Comte, Spencer, Durkheim and others, and against 'idealist' (Hegel and the Neo-Hegelians). However, in the center of the critical. analysis W. is materialistic. understanding of the history of Marx.

'Higher axiom sociology of knowledge' - the original principles of the theory of sociality W. The fact that we are talking about a 'knowledge' is due to tradition. (after Kant and neo-) Orienteering germ. Philosophy. thoughts on the theory of knowledge. SH. distinguishes three 'higher axioms of the sociology of knowledge': knowledge of each CONCRETE. man as a member of the board-l. social community on the merits of a priori, ie. precedes all stages of development of his consciousness and value consciousness, empirical methods. human participation in empathy with the people around him, and with them the primary means of knowledge transfer, vary depending on the essential structure of the social group to a-swarm, this one belongs - Z. wrote about such methods as' identification ',' empathy based bessoznat. infection ',' imitation ',' understanding ',' conclusion by analogy 'and there' Law Order 'in the origin of our knowledge of reality and in filling the knowledge of' subject areas', constant for any humane. consciousness. SH. captures five 'subject areas', . in to-ryh operates this 'law of order': one of the spheres is filled with knowledge in the first place and in this sense is primary in relation to other, . following her areas, . the second area - primary on the third and subsequent, etc.,
. Thus, 'outside world' is primary in relation to the 'inside. world ',' world of nature '- in relation to' the world of inanimate nature ', etc..

Rejecting the vulgar, the positivistic-pragmatic. 'sociological approach', W. finds' Sociology. soobuslovlennosti 'all forms of spiritual acts, to-ryh acquired knowledge, the social structure of the Society, and the choice of the object of knowledge (but not the content knowledge, and the more its truth) - the dominant social interests.

In accordance with its axiology W. distinguishes 'three higher kind of knowledge': knowledge for the sake of domination, or the achievement of positive science, knowledge for the sake of education, or obrazovat. knowledge of philosophy, knowledge of salvation, or religion. knowledge. Kazhtsaya of these forms of knowledge has its specificity. motivation (mastery and control - surprise - salvation), poznavat. Acts (observation, experiment, induction, deduction, etc.. - Intuition, knowledge of nature through the appreciation, etc.. - Faith, . hope, . love, . fear, etc.), . objective knowledge (world picture, . K-ц¦цЁц+ are only potentially manageable events, . - Formation of personality - the salvation of the individual and the community in God), . exemplary types of personalities (the researcher - sage - saint), . forms of social trunking for purchase, . preservation and transmission of knowledge (an internationally oriented researchers,
. laboratory or institution - local or nat. Philosophy. School - a globally-oriented church, sect, etc.), as well as the form of stories. movement (progress, cumulative development - improvement through transformation - the Reformation through the 'back to basics', 'restoration of the lost').

The concept of the three highest birth knowledge W. directed against the positivist philosophy of history and sociology of knowledge, expressed by Comte in the 'law of three stages'. By III., Each of the three branches of knowledge nesvodim to another and can not be 'resolved' in principle, tk. rooted in the most humane. nature.

Marx's theory of dialectical. on base and superstructure W. contrasts historically invariant antagonism of real and ideal factors. Under the real factors of history and culture refers to three groups of natures. instincts - the instinct of reproduction and sexual drive, the instinct of power and the drive to mastery, self-preservation instinct, in to-cerned highlights the instinct of nutrition. Under ideal (spiritual) factors - the ideas and values in their a priori hierarchy. Last dictate history and culture in their so-being, ie. determine CONCRETE. form of their phenomena, but by themselves are powerless to create anything - it is natures. forces. Inclinations, interests, trends, determine to do something or not, it creates itself an existence of phenomena, but without the help of ideas and values they are totally blind. Spirit not realize is that miss 'gateway' of the ruling at this time of social interests

. Interaction between real and ideal factors of history and culture is subject to out-of-law temporary dominance of one phase of the three groups of instincts of the two other groups similar to the life-cycle age, . or phases of the aging human,
. Thus, first priority is the instinct of reproduction (which corresponds to the era when social relations are determined mainly by blood-kinship. bonds); then - the instinct of power (which corresponds to the era of conquest and imperial aggrandizement), and finally, the superiority of self-preservation instincts of the other two leads to economical. era, in a swarm-forming ob-vo, aspiring to universal well-being.

Task 'sociology of culture' - to identify features of the interaction of real and ideal factors in each CONCRETE. phenomenon of this time with t.zr. ideal factors. Sociology of knowledge, on Sh - part of the sociology of culture. Its goal - to identify and analyze all aspects of the social group conditionality knowledge. In considering the phenomena with t.zr. manifestations in these real factors must deal with 'real sociology'.

Philos. anthropology conceived W. as the core of metaphysics. In the structure of a human. psyche, he distinguishes four layers corresponding evolution. steps organic. nature - feelings, impulses, instincts, associative memory and Practical. intellect (mind). He opposes it as an entirely different principle of the spirit, thanks to the rum-man towered over the nature. Man as the only known living creature in space, endowed with the spirit, is able to say 'no' natures. impulse. SH. calls the man 'Protestant life'. But no matter how intrinsically different life and spirit, they are inseparable: the spirit pervades the humane. life of ideas and values, without to-ryh it would not have any meaning, while the life of the spirit provides the possibility of Worker. expression and self-realization.

Main metaphysical. problem W. - Dualism 'spirit' and 'wind', or 'spirit' and 'vseedinoy life'. Based on E. Hartmann and focusing on Spinoza, W. considers the 'spirit' and 'enthusiasm' as two of the essential attribute of gods, 'primordial life'. The world-history. process is gradually increasing interpenetration of the two attributes, ie. implementation of the essential content of the Absolute ( 'praosnovy'). God and man in this process - 'associates'. The possibility of overcoming the opposites of spirit and nature, religion and science, East. and zap. cultural knowledge, Financials. and mental labor, capitalism and socialism, and not least in the male and female principles in man W. sees in the 'collaboration' of God and man ( 'man in the era of adjustment').

Eden W. influenced Plesner, Helena, Mannheim, social philosophy Frankfurt School, as well as on many others it. philosophers and sociologists, in particular, Habermas, X. Schelsky.

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