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Spengler (Spengler) Oswald

( German philosopher and theorist of culture, representative of the 'philosophy of life'.)

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Biography Spengler (Spengler) Oswald
(1880-1936) - It. philosopher and theorist of culture, representative of the 'philosophy of life'. In 'morphology of culture' W. shows the influence of the ideas of Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Bergson, aesthetic. teaching Worringer. Sam W. did not believe the philosophy in an age of 'civilization' creatures, the role of. In the most mean his work, the first volume of 'Decline of the West', W. proposed the concept of culture, directly or indirectly exerted a great influence on the historical kulturologich. thought 20 in. Based on extensive material accumulated in archeology, ethnography, compare, linguistics, etc., W. seeks to broaden the horizons of traditional. hist. science, to determine the place primarily Zap.-Europe. culture in the history of mankind. In his work, this attempt is closely linked with sharp criticism of DOS. postulates zap. hist. Science 19.: Eurocentrism, panlogism, historicism 'linear' direction. This pattern of W. opposes the doctrine of multiculturalism, equal to the level they reached maturity. Such closed cultures, W. eight:
egip., ind., Babylon., п+п¦пЁпTя+. (arabsko-vizant.), whale., Apollonian (greko-rim.) Faustian (West-Europe.) and Mayan culture. Their existence is testimony, not a single process of world history, and the unity of the manifestations of life in the universe. Cyclic. theory of evolution sought to overcome the mechanism of one-dimensional, unidirectional Evol. development schemes. The idea of cycling, . approving the cyclical development in the isolated in space and time of cultural realms, . a-rye, even while there are not communicate with each other, . causes special attention to their individuality, . exclusivity, . ext,
. unity. In the study of 'physiognomy' W. applies has received great response in the study of the history of culture method for morphological. analysis. The movement of history, its logic W. examines how the development and regular transformations (youth, flowering, maturity, decline) is extremely generalized cultural-historical. Forms. Culture - are different era, create it as integrity, ODA. ext. unity of forms of thought and creativity, a sort of uniform style, portrayed in economical forms., polit., spiritual, and religion., Practical., artist. life. In the center of the morphology of Culture III. - Analysis of the stylistic. Unity. In contrast to the dogmatic. principles of scientific knowledge, W. justifies, referring to Goethe, the priority of 'lyrical. beginning ',' sense of life 'in the approach to history. whole as a developing living organism. The idea of 'prasimvola' in the concept of W. - The key to understanding the morphology of the culture. One of the major problems kulturkrititsizma 20 in. - The ratio of culture and civilization - in the philosophy of W. takes the form of an insoluble antinomy. He highlighted the development of cultural-historical. individual the following phases: mifosimvolich. early culture, metaphysical-rel. high culture and later ossified culture, which passes into civilization. The whole cycle lasts about Millennium. Along with the method of analogy W. trying to prove the 'parallel-simultaneous' nature of the passage of these stages story line. cultures, uses a method of homology. Civilization everywhere has the same characteristics. She - a symptom and expression of the withering away of the cultural world in its totality as an organism, the damping animates his formotvorchestvo ideas back into oblivion, in of ethnic. chaos. Extremely politicized Cultorology W. based on the idea of predestination near death of the West. Deep experiencing the idea of inevitable decline Zap.-Europe. 'Faustian' culture, W. while demonstrating very contradictory, ambivalent, sometimes rolling in a frank apology in respect of many factors 'of civilization', disastrous for the history. cultures: destroy surplus, technology, giperurbanizm, reckless subjugation of nature by man, war. In the field of philosophy of science III. sought to emphasize the historical and cultural conditioning of scientific concepts, to make history., a movable element of the picture of the world, to appreciate the importance of discoveries estestv. sciences, particularly physics, to understand the dynamism of the overall mirovozzrench. paintings, as it took shape in the early. 20 in. Concept Z. absolutisation characterize the role of spiritual traditions, the denial of science, the function of objective knowledge of reality, he emphasizes the anthropomorphic, magic-superstitious basis of scientific thinking. The task of science, as well as other forms of culture, he sees in the symbolization of semantic organization of reality. SH. foresaw the development of self-consciousness of science in the direction of increasing the historicity. However he suffered a neck-rye of the theory of entropy in the sphere of socio-historical. knowledge, which served as his justification for the apocalypse zap. Culture. He accurately described many phenomena in modern. Science: the growing methodological. unity of science, fusion Dep. Science in the future, saturation of scientific language, symbols, etc.. Obviously the impact on the views of W. formation neklassich. science: by Sh, it is the development of science has made a visual 'emotional opposition' to-Rui carried out in the world's ancient and Zap.-Europe. culture - the first, tending to the principle of corporeality, plasticity, and the second - in order to 'obesplochivaniyu' world. Obesplochivanie 'struggle against the mother space' W. considers prasimvolom zap. culture, has already etched in the Kelt, and drevnegerm. epics. Effect of philosophy Z. is multifaceted. Method of morphological. analysis, the concept of 'equivalent cultures' stimulated the study of local civilizations. Philosophy of Culture III. ODA has. influence TN. hist. school in science (Kuhn, Feyerabend and others). Great importance for sovr. Philosophy of Culture has set W. to identify the common language of culture, cultural symbolism, as well as his hypotheses about the origin of language. In the works of 20-30-ies. reveals a growing reactionary attitudes Sh, especially political. Many of his ideas with enthusiasm to the ideology of fascism, however, the W. in 1933 rejected a proposal by the National Socialists to cooperate. Criticism of government policies led to the prohibition to mention the name of W. in politics, press. In one of the best means of works of this period, 'Man and Technology' to replace the concept of equivalent high culture comes simplistic monistic. picture of global development, vulgarize motives 'will to power', the struggle for existence. Antinomy 'culture - civilization' was withdrawn in the interpretation of world culture exclusively as 'artificial', the unnaturalness. Thus, the evolution of mankind deny the cultural and spiritual significance. Exception W. considers only the triumph of scientific discoveries generated Tekhniki. the genius of the West - here he moves the center of gravity of spirituality 'Faustian man'. Along with the definition of technology as 'the tactics of life' W. asserts the transcendental nature of the goals Tekhniki. 'soul-spiritual' need, selflessly and suicide, heroic zap. Rights. SH. first in a fundamental underestimated factor technology zap. Philosophy. idea raised the question of the place and role of technology in history, its' metaphysical. and moral status', the universal impact of technology on nature and on of. Particular importance was the thesis W. on priv. patterns of technological development, its autonomy as a fundamental trend analysis technique within the overall historical. process culture. Dept.. of Cultural Studies and Philosophy W. reflected in the work of such thinkers 20 in. as Mumford, Huizinga, X. Skolimowski, and others


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Spengler (Spengler) Oswald, photo, biography
Spengler (Spengler) Oswald, photo, biography Spengler (Spengler) Oswald  German philosopher and theorist of culture, representative of the 'philosophy of life'., photo, biography
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