Vesalius Andreras( Outstanding scientist, physician, anatomist, surgeon)
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Biography Vesalius Andreras
The time when he lived Andrew Vesalius (1514-1564), a distinguished scientist, physician and anatomist, surgeon, was called the Renaissance. Out Dark Ages, the overwhelming consciousness of the people by church dogmas, superstitions, demands slavish recognized authority. With the new era has come the desire to revive and use the rich heritage of ancient culture: the materialistic views of science, realism in art. In several countries in Europe at this time appeared the works of great artists, writers, scientists. One of the great men of the Renaissance was, and Andrew Vesalius.
He was born in g. Brussels family physicians. The interests of others, no doubt influenced the interests and aspirations of the young Vesalius. He studied at the school and university, Mr.. Louvain, where he received a thorough education, studied Greek and Latin. Obviously, Vesalius had read many books on medicine, ancient and contemporary scholars, as well as his works show deep knowledge.
Every year more and more passionate interest manifested Vesalius to the study of medicine, to the anatomical studies. In his spare time, he exercises at his home carefully laboratory preparations of the body of animals: mice, cats, dogs, enthusiastically studied the structure of their body. In an effort to improve their knowledge in the field of medicine, Vesalius, aged 17, went to the University of Paris, to attend the lectures of the famous anatomist Sylvia. Even then, the young Vesalius critical of the way at that time taught anatomy, and tried to deepen their knowledge, learn a lot by carrying out experiments.
Scientific justly considered the anatomy of the foundation of medical knowledge, and purpose of his life was the desire to revive the experience of the distant past, to develop and improve the method of studying human anatomy. However, the church, prevented the development of natural sciences, prohibit autopsies of people, considering it blasphemy.
In 1537, Mr.. young scientist arrived in the Republic of Venice, the University of Padua. The Government of the Republic of Venice has encouraged the development of the science of nature and sought to extend the work of scientists at the University of. Here Vesalius could freely engage in anatomical studies. Talented researchers, receive for their labors degree of Doctor of Medicine, identified the department of surgery to teach anatomy.
In the lectures he had post-mortem. Students, inspired by the bold experiments of Vesalius, with great interest listened to his lectures. Number of students in the audience came up to 500 people.
New, visual way to study anatomy, which replaced the old descriptions of the reading texts, was associated with great difficulties. But Vesalius was tireless in his effort to show the true nature of the human body. He has permission from the doctors examine the bodies of deceased patients who entered the credibility of the judges and received the corpses of executed criminals for public demonstrations of autopsy.
Several years of persistent labor enabled Vesalius and his followers clearly present the science of the human. He studied, translated and reprinted works of medical scientists of the past - the famous Roman physician II in. n. e. Galen, the great physician of the Central Asian XI in. Avicenna and many of his predecessors of Anatomists. But in their works, he found a few errors. 'Even the most prominent scientists - wrote Vesalius - slavishly adhered missteps of others'. The scientist has to trust only the most authentic book - a book of the human body.
He set to solve the great problem - correctly describe the location, shape and function of human body organs.
The result of passion and hard work of the scientist was famous treatise in seven books, entitled 'On the structure of the human body'. Vesalius wrote it when he was only 28 years old. It was a huge scientific work, in which, instead of outdated dogma presents new scientific views. It reflected the cultural progress of humanity in the Renaissance.
The book is decorated with beautiful drawings of Vesalius Stephan Kalkar, a pupil of the great Italian artist Titian. Characteristic that the skeletons are shown in the figures are in poses typical of living people, and landscapes that surround some of the skeletons, they say about life, not death. All this work is aimed at Vesalius favor of a living person, on study of his body, to preserve the health and life. Every capital letter in the treatise is decorated with drawings depicting children studying anatomy. So it was in ancient times - the art of anatomy taught from childhood, the knowledge passed down from father to son. The book is given a portrait of Vesalius, where he is shown during a public lecture and post-mortem human.
Work Vesalius upset the minds of scientists. The boldness of his scientific ideas, his discoveries brought him many followers. However, he has appeared, and many enemies. A lot of grief experienced a great scholar, when he left, even students. Famous Sylvius, Vesalius teacher, called him 'Vezanus', which means crazy. He spoke against Vesalius sharp pamphlet, called 'Protection against libel in the anatomical work of Hippocrates and Galen on the part of some lunatic'
. Vesalius had been fighting, and has lectured, advocated the correctness of his theory, based on experience, but hatred and envy were a response to the irrefutable truth that so clearly and vividly demonstrated the great anatomist
The struggle to break his will and inspired bitter doubt. In desperation Vesalius burned many of his works, stop the teaching of anatomy.
He agreed to take the post of court physician of King of Spain. His extensive knowledge of human anatomy, researchers used in medical practice. He treated patients studied a lot of drugs, has written works on surgery and the treatise 'On the Chinese roots'.
Vesalius sought to engage and research, but the oppression of the Inquisition, persecution of the clergy, which scientists have ridiculed in his works, created for him too grave situation.
On the last years of Vesalius little is known. In letters to his contemporaries, suggests that in the autopsy of the deceased, who have declined the heart (such phenomenon is extremely rare), the Inquisition sentenced to death Vesalius. By order of King penalty was replaced by a pilgrimage to Palestine 'to atone for sins'. In 1564, Mr.. Vesalius and his wife and daughter he left Spain. Joining the family in Brussels, he went on a long journey. On the road to Jerusalem, the scientist stopped in Venice.
Vesalius did not give up the idea of returning to studies of anatomy. It has been suggested that the Senate of Venice asked him again to take a chair at the University of Padua. But the scientist's dream to return to research is not realized. On the way back from Jerusalem to the ship, which sailed patient Vesalius, shipwrecked. Vesalius came to the island of Zante (Greece), where he soon died. We do not know his place of burial. But the best monument to the scientist, a fighter for progressive science, he used his great work on the structure of the human body.