Louis Pasteur( Physician, founder of the science of microbiology)
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Biography Louis Pasteur
The greatness of Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) not only in his discoveries that have great significance for humanity. All of his life and activities - an unusually vivid example of selfless service to science and perseverance in achieving the lofty goals.
Louis Pasteur was the son of a tanner from the French town of Dole. Despite poor health and lack of funds, Pasteur successfully graduated from high school in Paris that trains teachers for secondary schools. There he attended the lectures of the famous chemist, Dumas, and especially fond of chemistry and physics.
Desire for scientific research made the young Pasteur choose best teaching position, Professor of Physics modest laboratory work in chemistry. In his enthusiasm for experience, he often forgot about rest and sleep. A short time, Pasteur was able to make a very great scientific work, preparing and brilliantly defended two doctoral dissertations: one - in physics, another - in chemistry.
When Pasteur was about 26 years, he had already acquired a reputation in research on the structure of crystals, opening the cause of the uneven impact of a beam of polarized light in crystals of organic substances. This resulted in a further rise to the stereochemistry - the science of the spatial arrangement of atoms in molecules.
With his usual sharp observation Pasteur noticed that the asymmetric crystals are found in substances produced during fermentation. Intrigued by the phenomena of fermentation, he began to study them. Since Pasteur - chemist and physicist - first entered the exciting field of biology.
In a small, very modest laboratory in g. Lille in 1857. Pasteur made a remarkable discovery, he proved that fermentation - a biological phenomenon, that every fermentation (alcohol, vinegar, etc.) is the result of life of special microscopic organisms - yeast.
The explanation of the phenomena of fermentation are not only great value to the French wine-making, who have suffered severe losses from diseases of wine and beer, and played a crucial role in the development of biological science, agriculture and industry. Since then, the doctrine of the fermentation process has made enormous strides, and now we have many kinds of yeast. Deep knowledge of the nature of fermentation gives the ability to manage their processes. It is very important for baking, winemaking, production of many nutrients' t. n.
At that time, Pasteur made another important discovery. He discovered the organisms for which oxygen is not only unnecessary, but harmful. Such organisms are called anaerobic. Representatives of them - the microbes that cause fermentation Butyric. Reproduction of such microbes is rancidification wine and beer.
Throughout his later life devoted to the study of microorganisms Pasteur and the search for means to combat the pathogens of infectious diseases of animals and humans.
To talk about the merits of the Pasteur as the founder of science of microbiology, should write a book. In a scientific dispute with the French scientist F. He Pushe numerous experiments conclusively proved that all microorganisms can occur through reproduction. Where microscopic germs are killed and their penetration of the external environment is impossible, where there can be microbes, there is neither fermentation or putrefaction.
These works Pasteur showed widespread inaccuracy in medicine at that time look, in which all diseases are either inside the body, or under the influence of corrupt air (miasma). Pasteur proved that the disease now known as contagious, can only arise as a result of infection - that enter the body from environmental microbes. On this principle, and in our time is based the whole theory and practice of combating infectious diseases of humans, animals and plants.
But the scientist is not satisfied with the discovery of the causes of these diseases. He was looking for a reliable way to deal with them. I found it! This method - inoculations, in which the body creates immunity to certain diseases (immunity).
In the 80 years in numerous experiments, Pasteur found that pathogenic properties of microbial pathogens of infectious diseases, we can arbitrarily reduce. If the animal a vaccination, t. e. put in his body sufficiently weakened germs that cause infectious disease, it is not sick or tolerate disease in mild and, most importantly, continue to become immune to the disease (acquired immune to it). Such changes, but to create immunity wiring germs called since the proposal Pasteur vaccine. This term is introduced Pasteur, wishing to perpetuate the great achievements of the English physician E. Jenner, who, not knowing the principles of vaccination, gave humanity the first vaccine - smallpox. Through many years of work of Pasteur and his disciples began to practice a vaccine against chicken cholera, anthrax, measles pigs, and finally, against rabies.
The originator of this dangerous disease at the time was unknown. Now we know that this is the smallest micro-organism - a virus, it can be seen only with large increases in the electron microscope. Pasteur developed a method of vaccination against rabies, for which he used a specially-dried brains of rabbits infected with rabies.
Many animal experiments have yielded positive results, but a means to test on humans dared scientist.
The case put an end to its fluctuations. In the summer of 1885. a broken-hearted woman brought her son to Pasteur, bitten rabid dog. The boy was doomed to certain death, and the Pasteur decided to try his vaccine.
Difficult to him was given this experience. He spent the night without sleep, hope gave way to despair, but he was happy when the child was still alive and well! Hence, his scientific prediction has come true and a way to save hundreds and thousands of lives has been opened.
In different countries there Pasteur station, being vaccinated against rabies. In Russia, the first such station was established in 1886. the initiative of scientists and. I. Mechnikov H. F. Gamalei.
But Pasteur and his followers had to fight for the recognition of a new way to prevent contagious diseases. Academic criticized in that it denies scientific views that have existed for centuries, have questioned his experiments. It was enough for a failure to Pasteur accused that he had his vaccinations infects and kills people. All this could not affect his health, and when in Paris, with the money raised by international subscription, was built first-class Pasteur Institute (1888), researchers have been able to work in the lab ...
Pasteur developed the world's scientific school of microbiologists, many of his students later became top scientists. He had close ties with many Russian scientists. While almost all Russian microbiologists went to work for the Pasteur, and later in his institute in Paris
. Pasteur told his disciples: 'Be sure, . had discovered an important scientific fact, . ... go all out, . to destroy the very fruits of their labors, . and not to declare the result, . until he tasted all the conflicting hypotheses, . - Yes, . it is a hard feat ',
Pasteur called upon the youth to learn, to love their people and mankind. 'Tell me again: what have I done for my obrazovaniyaN "he said. - Then, as you move forward in life: what have I done for my stranyN '
To. A. Timiriazev called the work of Louis Pasteur 'unprecedented in its fruit'. He stressed that 'this genius of the experimental method differed diligence, perseverance in work, almost more than every thing'. Each new generation of scientists, . everyone can learn from the Pasteur passion, . determination in, . high sense of duty, . love for mankind, . ability to work and create value, . increase our power over nature, . improving people's lives.,
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