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Vvedenskaya Alexander

( Russian philosopher and psychologist)

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Biography Vvedenskaya Alexander
photo Vvedenskaya Alexander
(1856-1925) is the largest representative of the critical philosophy in Russia. Born in 1856. Graduated from Tambov high school, he entered the Faculty of Mathematics at Moscow University, where moved to St. Petersburg, at first, too, the mathematics, and a year later at the History and Philology. A disciple MN. Vladislavlev on philosophy and Bestuzhev-Rumina on Russian history. In 1898, Mr.. thesis master's degree in philosophy and in 1890. took the chair of philosophy at St. Petersburg. University. Contains also a professor of Military Law Academy, Institute of History and Philology, Women's Pedagogical Institute and the higher female rates Raeva; long time reading philosophy at the so-called Bestuzhev higher rates. Since 1899. is chairman of St. Petersburg. Philosophical Society. Scientific direction of philosophy Vedenskiy - criticism or Kantianism in the strictest sense of the word. Despite the fact that Vvedenskii a school representative, the establishment is not it, his thinking is different autonomy. Application Vedenskiy critical point of view of empirical science leads to a completely new points of view in this area. Mathematics and science for Vvedensky, as for every krititsista are the prototype of all knowledge, they He explores what conditions are attached to these sciences of their cogency, and which are therefore the conditions of all ranks. Then it checks the results obtained proves the logical way, making the logic of particular importance. Due to the severity of consistency of this method, the contemporaries Vedenskiy can talk about him as a thinker completed. This does not mean that his work could not develop further, but from the very beginning of Vvedensky she was in the progressive development of one and the same idea. This is not true, perhaps only to his practical philosophy, which he calls "morally justified by faith". In the field of theoretical philosophy, even the presentation techniques that are used Vvedensky, from beginning to end, some are the same. First, we prove the impossibility in this area is no other point of view, . but critical, then gives a psychological explanation, . why some hold other points of view, . and, . Finally, . revealed the mistake, . which lies in their evidence,
. The basis of all his works Vvedensky puts the idea, . what, . because the conditions of the possibility of all knowledge is at the same time, the conditions of consciousness, . that knowledge is possible only on the representations, . but not about, . that exists outside of our experience,
. Hence the desire to release Vedenskiy empirical science from the dogmatic ideas, which do not find justification in experience and justified only dogmatic thinking. Two kinds of science, claiming the exact origin of the experimental, criticized Vvedensky: 1) the science of bodies, that is, natural science, and 2) the science of psychic phenomena, that is, psychology. Consistent with these works Vedenskiy fall into two main areas, except the third, which unites them, that is logical: 1) study physical phenomena and 2) the study of psychic phenomena. In the field of physical phenomena Vvedensky explores one substrate, . that dogmatic thinking shoved under the data in the experience of the phenomenon, . ie matter, . proves, . that such a substrate refers to the field of metaphysics, . and is therefore unknowable to science,
. Over the soul of the critical philosophy is to Vvedensky had done the work it performs on the matter of Vvedensky, she proved that in practice we are only dealing with psychic phenomena, and not to the soul. Vvedensky complements this provision, arguing that in the field of psychic phenomena we are dealing only with their psychic phenomena, alien animation in the experiment is not given, and therefore also relates to the field of metaphysics. Teaching Vvedensky of matter is contained in his dissertation "The experience of constructing a theory of matter on the principles of critical philosophy" (1888), remained unfinished. But first, the current in the press, is the capital of the study and takes an extensive and well-developed material. This work was preceded by an article in the Journal of the Ministry of National Education: "The doctrine of Leibniz on matter" (1886, . N 1), . and two articles in the same journal: "The critic and philosophical analysis of mass communication and the higher laws of matter in the law of proportionality" (1889, . N 3) and "On the structure of matter" (1890, . N 7 and 8) significantly complement the teaching of the matter,
. By the same question is a small article about the speech Ostwald: "The failure of scientific materialism," placed in the "Northern Messenger" (1896, N 9) and entitled: "Atomism and energetism". Vvedensky consistently examines, in terms of critical philosophy, all those properties that have ever considered the essence of matter. Leibniz, as shown by Vvedensky, Descartes destroyed the concept of matter as consisting of only one length. After Leibniz, however, the matter still remains extended, impenetrable and passive, all the phenomena in it are derived from the movement and its laws, as the supreme law of motion is to maintain the force. Thus, the force remains something alien to the passive matter. Research impermeability, . in connection with the issue of over, . and research strength, . in connection with the energy, . understanding them in the sense, . What makes these notions of modern science, . devoted dissertation Vvedensky, . content which, . in essentials, . is as follows,
. The tightness can be absolute or dynamic. Absolute permeability - ta, . which follows from the mere existence of matter in space and the geometric incompatibility of parts of this space, the dynamic permeability is - ta, . which is the cause of motion and, . hence, . coincides with the force,
. Thus, . matter, . having absolute impenetrability, . should be composed of extended parts, . and movement in it due to its mechanical transmission through the shock, . whereas with dynamic length for impenetrability of matter is insignificant, . a cause of motion is she,
. However, the absolute permeability in impulse also is beginning again cause movement and therefore, it also turns the power, and its contrast to the dynamic power consists only in that it does not operate continuously and instantaneously. The mechanical strength is not there to touch and will not exist after him as well as an instant, which is not preceded by, and for which there is no time, it appears, in fact, without the time, the force acting instantaneously, is not real. Not only that: the action of such a force exists without space, because the new movement should occur when the approximation is already in contact absolutely impermeable, and therefore do not permit further convergence of particles. And as the law of causality works only in time and space, the absolute permeability would remove the law of causality, so absolutely impenetrable substance is a mythical concept which can not be reality. From all this it follows that within the world of appearances matter, on a priori laws of our knowledge, may be composed solely of dynamic elements, than to eliminate the dualism of matter and motion. Vvedensky This conclusion is reinforced by evidence, . that the mechanical point of view eliminates the empirical law of conservation of energy: the jolt of the atoms in the conservation of energy is possible only if, . if the stimulus is not due simply impossible to reconcile, . and their action at a distance repulsive forces, . as a condition of magnitude of the repulsive action of the atoms is the speed of their movement during the contact, but if the atoms are absolutely impermeable, . then during the convergence rate is zero,
. Conclusions, . which comes Vvedensky in "Experience", . as follows: it can be assumed, . that matter is thoroughly consists only of the forces, . interaction which is accompanied by changes in our feelings, the same forces can not be mechanical, . only dynamic, so should not be allowed and absolute impenetrability, . only dynamic, . that is caused by a kind of repulsive force,
. These findings Vvedensky repeats in the article "Analysis of the masses", and then, by analyzing the concept of mass, show that the mass can be decomposed into motion and thus confirm that the matter not be ascribed to nothing but the dynamic forces. And indeed, research shows that the mass has real meaning only as the law of proportionality between all the accelerations and is a number, indicating that the proportionality. The study of matter would be incomplete if it did not consider Vvedensky atomism, which is the doctrine of the matter, until recently, prevailed in the natural sciences. In the article "On the structure of matter" Vvedensky taken to prove that, although the laws of our consciousness, we are compelled to think of atoms as a substance, but they are real only in their interactions. This work is like a brief conclusion Vedenskiy teaching about matter and explores the atoms in terms of chemistry. Conclusions her briefly as follows. Chemistry, studying the composition of bodies, based on the decomposition of bodies into simple and complex, assuming the simple body unchanged. Under a simple body, she understands this, which consists of a homogeneous entity, but under the complex - one which consists of a mechanical mixture of several indwelling entity. Assuming the essence of bodies, it is thus distinguished from the body, from which they are composed, that is, admits the reality of the matter. Meanwhile, under the composition of a complex body, we must understand only the "expression of the transformations to which it is capable, as opposed to mere bodies, incapable of these transformations". In the experiment we find nothing immutable but the laws change, so you can not come from specialty items, but only from their vosstanovlyaemosti. In the eyes of the critical philosophy chemistry should be to study not of the chemical substances, and in the study of the laws of chemical events, ie transformations. And since the force, . within experience, . is nothing, . as the law of interaction, . a study of matter and leads to a final conclusion, . that in terms of the critical philosophy of the body consists of a complex natural-related sensations, . are objectified by the laws of consciousness,
. This is to prove. In a parallel study Vedenskiy concept of matter should put the study of what we call the psychic phenomena. To safeguard the scientific knowledge of the invasion of metaphysical assumptions, . it is taken to prove, . that the experience of the existence of psychic phenomena is given only in the form of his own psychic life, the existence of a strange psychic life in the direct experience is not given and can be denied without contradiction with experimental data, . and therefore also relates to the field of metaphysics, . that is, is unknowable,
. This doctrine is contained in the article "On the limits and signs of animation. New psychophysiological law in connection with the question of the possibility of metaphysics "(St. Petersburg, 1892) and reduces to the following provisions. Monitoring is not available to someone else's psychic life, but only bodily phenomena, among which there is not one that can serve as an objective sign of animation. Therefore there is no means logically refute the skeptic, who wished to deny the existence of psychic life in anyone whatsoever, except himself. The smartest, apparently, the answer to this question can not be a sign of enthusiasm responsible, since this response can be explained by purely material processes. That, . that different people or the same person at different times give different answers to the same question, . can be explained by, . that the result of stimulation depends not only on the nature of the stimulus, . but the nature of the first tested body action, . if only in the body of their traces,
. From all this Vvedensky takes out a new psycho-physical law, which states that "all mental life is subject to the law of the lack of objective signs of animation". However, recognition of the existence of other people's enthusiasm is required by our moral sense, which gives it its steadfast in our minds. Moral sense, . imposed on us the recognition of binding moral duty, . however, requires or, . otherwise, . postulates the freedom of will, . immortality, . the existence of God and, . thus, . provides the only firm foundation for solving the problems of metaphysics, . which, . with other, . true alien animation,
. The new law has caused a hot debate Vvedensky. E.L objected. Radlov (Journal Europe ", 1893, N 2), the princes S.N. Trubetskoy N.YA. Groth ( "Questions of Philosophy and Psychology", 1893, Book 16) and Astafjevs ( "Faith and Knowledge", Moscow, 1893). That provoked an article Vvedensky, . entitled "Secondary call at the dispute about the law of animation" ( "Questions of Philosophy and Psychology", . Book 18, . 1893), . followed by new objections Lopatin and Radlov ( "Questions of Philosophy and Psychology", . Book 19),
. From objecting, . however, . only Trubetskoy, . Groth and Lopatin challenge very law, . but, . despite repeated calls twice Vvedensky, . not indicate any objective evidence of the existence of other people's enthusiasm - the evidence, . through which to refute the skeptic, . seized deny such an animation,
. Thus, the law remained Vedenskiy not be refuted. True, . Lopatin exposes the desirability of acting in an objective sign of enthusiasm, but if this is not the desirability of mere appearance, . easily boils down to certain reasons, . it only can be based on free will, . which, . in turn, . a moral requirement, . ie, . according to the teachings Vvedensky, . refers to the faith, . not to the knowledge, . and therefore the objection Lopatin can only confirm the conclusion Vvedensky, . but does not destroy it,
. If their research material and inspiration Vvedensky seeks to protect the exact sciences from the invasion of any kind were "things in themselves", . then in two articles: "On Kant's real and imaginary" ( "Questions of Philosophy and Psychology", . Book 25, . 1894) and "Kant's doctrine of change of psychic phenomena" ( "Questions of Philosophy and Psychology", . Book 29, . 1895), . against Karinskoe, . it seeks to shield from the same theory of knowledge,
. In these articles Vvedenskii explains Kant's doctrine of the time, . defending Kant against the charge, . if change our ideas, he did not think too only submission, . give her a metaphysical reality, . what, . sure, . fundamentally undermining the critical theory of knowledge,
. This is thoroughly consistent hostility Vedenskiy to scientific metaphysics leads him: 1) to a complete rupture between the realm of knowledge and the realm of faith, 2) to limit the field of knowledge by experienced science, . with the addition of logic and mathematics, and 3) a corresponding expansion of the faith, . which will also be bound by the moral duty, . and other people's animations, and 4) finally, . the teaching of, . faith not only can not have scientific credibility, . but can not even have a greater or lesser degree of probability, . because, . as explained Vvedensky, . objecting Radlov, . protesting against the gap of two domains, . likely to be understood only in terms of mathematical probability, . that is such, . which in its approach to the reliability capable of a precise calculation,
. These conclusions are based on the assumption Vvedensky, . that the practical consciousness, . its postulates, . not, . in turn, . condition for the possibility of theoretical consciousness, otherwise the conditions, . make possible the practical consciousness, . would become mandatory for the consciousness of the theoretical,
. I had to choose between absolute skepticism, denying the possibility of knowledge, even within the experience and recognition of science mandatory for the conditions that make possible the practical consciousness. In the latter case, the study of these conditions would require no less rigor and caution than the study of "conditions of possible experience". Then the belief in the moral duty and obligation to other people's animations, . assuming, . it makes the very possibility of, . hence, . and activity of knowledge, . not cease to be faith, . would approach the reliability of an infinitesimal distance, . as conditioned would be the most reliability,
. But as Vvedensky refrains from both skepticism and recognition of science mandatory for the practical conditions of consciousness, with the latter, he is drawn much more freely than with the use of synthetic judgments a priori. So the existence of moral duty (which is bound by faith, . not knowledge), it displays as a requirement or postulates not only the freedom of the will, . determines the possibility of moral duty, . but the immortality of the soul, . OTHERS animation, . and the existence of God,
. In short, following in this respect, Kant, metaphysics Vvedenskii proposes to build on the recognition of moral obligation debt. This path, . already outlined in the study "On the limits and signs of animation", . develops later in the following articles Vvedensky: "On the types of faith in its relationship to knowledge" ( "Questions of Philosophy and Psychology," 1893, . Books 20 and 21), . "Conditions for admissibility of faith in the meaning of life" (1896), . "The debate about free will before the court of critical philosophy" ( "Journal of the Ministry of National Education", . 1901),
. This aspect of the philosophy Vedenskiy generated the greatest number of objections, . because, . if the imperative of moral obligation is categorical in nature and if it, . besides, . purely formal, . then there is only a requirement of the laws in my actions, . as it says criticism, . it is mandatory for me, and then, . If I exist a moment, . and if besides me there is no one animate,
. - From the foregoing it is evident that world Vedenskiy built on a solid foundation of critical theory of knowledge. Check the validity of this theory as well as the entire building, erected on its base, can only by checking the correctness of thinking, which served as the instrument for building. Therefore, in the teachings Vedenskiy great importance logic, . that 1) can not possibly be the logic of discovery, . because "the real connection in the world do not decompose in a purely logical", . and can only be a logic test, and 2) the value of logic - in the role, . she can play for a theory of knowledge, . checking the validity of the latter, . that is the role of the logic of pure utility, and 3) so the logic is part of the theory of knowledge, . and, . as science evaluator, . it should be strictly distinguished from the psychology,
. Thus limiting the value of logic, Vvedensky thus gives it the right to address all those issues to which the theory of knowledge. Therefore, the last work of Vvedensky's "logic, as part of the theory of knowledge" (St. Petersburg, 1912) covers the entire world Vvedensky himself and all the main conclusions of his philosophy. Statement of logical laws and forms of thinking, . the logic Vedenskiy little retreat from the logic of Aristotle, . He goes in parallel with the methods set out the evidence and methods of verification, . as well as the comparative evaluation of the cognitive value judgments, . depending on their form and their material,
. Along comes and criticism of the cognitive significance of various forms of reasoning, for example, the four figures of the syllogism on which Vvedensky argues that each of them can be reduced to any other. The proof of this idea brochure released Vedenskiy in 1897: "A new formulation of the question of the independence of the four figures of the syllogism, the contents of which are now fully included in the" logic ". It became a purely logical proof of philosophical criticism, which Vvedenskii outlined in a report in St. Petersburg. Philosophical Society and then published in a special brochure entitled: "A new and easy proof of philosophical criticism" (St. Petersburg, 1909). Proof of this comes down to what the law of contradiction, in contrast to other logical laws, has a dual character. Can not imagine the implementation is contrary to, . and therefore for the representation of a natural law, but think of the contradiction can, . but because the thinking is the law of statutory, . that is such, . failure of which may, . but compliance with the correctness of thinking leads,
. Because of this dual nature of the law of contradiction, it follows that its use justified only in relation to representations, beyond which its legality remains untested. This also included and prepared by previous work Vedenskiy his teaching on the impossibility of metaphysics in any form of knowledge and the cogency of any form of faith, . and therefore logical critique of rationalism, . intuitionism and mysticism, . in their attempts to justify the scientific metaphysics,
. Finally, here is envisaged a possible way for metaphysics as a morally justified belief. In 1910,. Vvedensky textbook "logic for high schools, awarded a large prize the Emperor Peter the Great. In addition to the above-mentioned works Vedenskiy he owned the following essays and reviews: "The scientific activity of MI. Vladislavlev "(" Journal of the Ministry of National Education ", 1890, N 6)," The value of philosophical activity NN. Strakhov "(" Education ", . 1896, . N 3), . "Russische Literatur uber Kant" ( "Kantstudien", . 1896, . N 1), . "The atheism of Spinoza" ( "Questions of Philosophy and Psychology", . Book 37-I, . 1897), . "The fate of philosophy in Russia" (ib., . Book 42-I, . 1898), . On mysticism and criticism VS,
. Solovyov "(ib., Book 56, 1901)," An experimental didactics A.P. Nechayeva "(" Journal of the Ministry of National Education, 1901, N 12), "Problems of modern psychology" (Journal of Library and for self-education ", 1903)," Professor G. Chelpanov textbook logic "(" Journal of the Ministry of National Education, 1908, N 6), "What is the philosophical krititsizmN" ( "New Word", 1909, N 1). Some of the above-mentioned articles, mainly on the relationship between faith and knowledge, included in the collection "Philosophical Essays" (St. Petersburg, 1901). K. Miloradovich.

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