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Joy Paul Guilford

( American psychologist)

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Biography Joy Paul Guilford
Guilford (Guilford) Joy Paul (7.3.1897, Aurora, pc. Nebraska - 1976) - American psychologist. Educated at the University of Nebraska (1918-1924, . BA, . 1922; Master, . 1924), . at Cornell University (1924-1926, . Ph.D., . 1927), . later - again in Nebraska (Doctor of Laws, . 1952) and the University of Southern California (PhD, Sociology, . 1962),
. Since 1920. by 1924. worked as an assistant professor at the University of Nebraska in 1924. by 1926. - At Cornell University in 1926. by 1927. it - a professor of psychology at the University of Illinois, from 1927. by 1928. it - an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Kansas, from 1928. by 1940. - Associate Professor at the University of Nebraska, in parallel - Director of the Bureau of Educational Research (1938-1940), since 1940. by 1967. - Professor of psychology at the University of Southern California. He began his scientific career with the compilation of the questionnaire on the distinction between extroverts and introverts.
. World renown he brought to the study, in which he, through the use of tests and factor analysis, attempted to build mathematical models of the creative personality
. This model is widely used in the future to define creativity in American science and industry. As a result of his twenty-year research Guilford came to build a 'model of a cubic structure of intellect ", . which was submitted to three dimensions: operations (cognition, . memory, . Rating, . divergent and convergent productivity), . content (pictorial material, . symbolic, . semantic and behavioral), . results (elements, . Classes, . relations, . system, . types of transformations, and inferences),
. Together with the staff he was able to identify and provide diagnostic tools 98 out of 120 possible factors, formed by cells of the cube ( 'Analysis of Intelligence ", NY, 1971 (Joint. with Hoepfner R.)).
Particular interest in his studies led research methods divergent thinking, which focused on the problem of not having strictly algorithm solutions and solving a variety of ways. In particular, was created 'Test University of South. California, "which identifies such features as ease of divergent thinking, flexibility and accuracy. Guilford interpreted personality as a simple combination of certain individual-specific features. In accordance with this developed a test 'Review of temperaments ", . allows you to diagnose: the overall activity, . self, . authoritativeness, . sociability, . emotional stability, . objectivity, . friendliness, . thoughtfulness, . personal relationships, . masculinity ( 'Fourteen dimensions of temperament ", . 'Psychological Monogr. ", . 1956, . 70 (Joint,
. with Zimmerman WS)).
. As a result of a quotient-analytical study, . first in the study of personality, . came to the adequacy of the following motivational factors: the organismic needs (hunger, . sex, . need to move), . need for certain parameters of the environment (comfort, . purity), . needs, . related to the work (an ambition, . tenacity), . needs, . associated with social status (freedom, . honesty), . social needs, . common interests (the need for risk, . in entertainment) ( 'Personality ", . NY, . 1959),
. The first was to investigate the features of personality traits and communication motivational structures, in particular subject of interest ( 'A factor analysis study of human interests ",' Psychological Monogr.", 1954, 68 (et al.)).


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