HOFFMANN Erving( The American sociologist)
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Biography HOFFMANN Erving
(1922-1982) - Amer. sociologist. Born in Canada, in 1945 he graduated from Univ of Toronto, in 1949, Chicago University Press, where his teachers were U. Lloyd Warner and E. Hughes. In 1949-51 conducted a field study of community in one of the Shetland Islands, the materials to-cerned formed the basis of Doctor. dis. 'Communicative behavior in the island communities' (1953); its main ideas developed in his further studies: the interaction of face-to-face, how to maintain, destruction and restoration of public order in the interaction, etc.. In 1954-57 worked in the National. Ying-those mentally. health; in 1955-56 studied at the hospital of St.. Elizabeth in Washington on the social organization of private psychiatry, institutions, general characteristics of total institutions and mechanisms of influence on the organization of a human. identity. According to studies of the book was written 'Shelters' (1961). In 1958-68 he worked at the Faculty of Sociology those Zap California at Berkeley. During these years he published several papers devoted to the analysis of the interaction of face-to-face and public order: 'Introduction of yourself in everyday life' (1959), 'Collisions' (1961),' behavior in society, places' (1963), ' Stigma '(1968). In 1968-82 - Professor. sociology and social anthropology Pensilvan. Zap. In the 70-ies. wrote a work on the ritual aspects of everyday interaction 'interaction ritual' (1972) and 'relationship to the public' (1971), as well as methodological. work 'Framework Analysis' (1974). Sociology. Association.
Basic Fixes. research topic T. was the daily interaction of face-to-face, ie. everyday interaction between people located in the immediate. Financials. the presence of each other. One of its most important achievements was that he showed a fundamental orderliness of the usual and subtle forms of everyday humane. behavior (the movement of people on the streets, conversational interactions, greetings and farewells, expressions of politeness and discretion, permit small disputes and strife, etc.). He believed that public policy is supported in such simple forms chelov. behavior and interaction, is a basic level of maintenance of social order and social solidarity, and a prerequisite for all higher levels of social order (political, economic, etc.). G. considered various mechanisms for maintaining public order: the ritual, play, drama, etc.. For example, in the 'Introduction themselves in everyday life' G. developed the 'theater metaphor', considered the acting individuals as actors, playing on the stage of ODA. role in the presence of an audience. This work brought him the fame of the founder of the concept of 'social drama'.
Continuing the tradition of the study of ritual (Durkheim and Radcliffe-Brown), T. subjected to the study of small interpersonal rituals, . localized in everyday social interactions: greetings and farewells, . ritual organization of conversation, . apology, . holiday meeting, . provision of small services to strangers, etc.,
. Dividing interpersonal rituals of the positive ( 'support') and negative ( 'correctional'), he analyzed the ritual aspects of everyday interactions ( 'maintain face', respectful manners, tact, politeness). Using the original methodology. model G. demonstrated that such small rituals have their own structure, are committed to ODA. rules, and also give individuals the means to restore public order in cases where it intentionally or unintentionally violated.
In this paper, 'Shelters' G. analyzed in detail the features of social organization of an institution ( "total institutions'): Prisons, psihiatrich. hospitals, leper colony, army barracks, monasteries, shelters for children and the elderly, etc.. A particular object of interest r. were the mechanisms of transformation chelov. person under the influence of such organizations, he considered these mechanisms are universal component of the participation of the individual in the social structure of the Society. Work 'Shelters' had a great response and, along with other work 'stigma', in K-theory was developed by a swarm of 'stigma', assisted the release of psevdobolnyh psihiatrich. agencies.
Portfolio G. extremely rich in content, . different interdisciplinary character, they had a serious impact on anthropology, . sociology, . linguistics, . ethology, . polit, . science, . psychology, . communication theory, . folkloristics etc.; enjoyed enormous popularity, . out mass circulation,
. In the 80-ies. began serious theory. understanding of his heritage. Many researchers attribute G. among the most prominent sociologists Tues. gender. 20 at.