JAMES, William( American psychologist and philosopher)
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Biography JAMES, William
(1842 - 1910) - American psychologist and philosopher. Follow the idea that the consciousness of the value of life becomes clear only on the basis of evolutionary theory, which considers it an instrument of adaptation to the environment. On this basis, developed a mo-residential-biological concept of the psyche as a special form of activity of the organism, designed to ensure its effective survival ( 'Principles of Psychology', 1890). The division of consciousness into elements rejected, and advances the thesis of his integrity and dynamics ( 'stream of consciousness'), realizing the needs of the individual. These provisions are fundamental to the philosophy of psychological research in the U.S.. Particular importance was attached to the activity and selectivity of consciousness, and its function in the life of the individual as a system, be reduced to set of sensations, ideas, and t. n. According to D., consciousness correlated not only with bodily adaptive actions, but also with the nature of the individual, under a swarm-understood 'all that a man feels'. Personality was identified with the notion of 'I', seen as a singular totality, which has several forms: physical, social, spiritual. Thus was planned transition from a purely epistemological understanding of 'I' to its system-psychological interpretation and analysis pourovnevomu. In an effort to interpret the psyche of the unity of its. external and internal manifestations, D. proposed (together with the Danish anatomist K.. Lange) theory of emotions, according to Roy-experienced subject emotional state (fear, joy, etc.) represent the effect of physiological changes in muscular and cardiovascular systems. This reflects the installation of the fact, to give deterministic, natural-scientific explanation for the feelings. Much attention D. devoted to a detailed analysis of skills, ideomotor acts, as well as anomalous mental phenomena ( 'The variety of religious experience', 1902).
JAMES, James (James) William (1842-1910)-Amer. philosopher and psychologist, in 1872-1907 - Harvard University is the Cambridge (Mass.); representative antimaterialistich. 'radical empiricism' and one of the founders of pragmatism, to-ing established and came into vogue in the United States, the creator of pragmatic. version of culture. Kulturfilos. Concept D. organically linked to his Philosophy. method. Pragmatism acted as svoeobr. theory of truth, but at the same time and ODA. process understanding reality.
D., justifying their methodology, spoke about the importance of gathering facts, going up to him without any a priori theory. He asserted the importance of Universal. experience, to-ing he interprets it as a stream of consciousness, as' pluralistic. universe '. This doctrine D. defined as a radical empiricism. According to this methodology, all ideals are relative. It would be absurd to seek the definition of 'perfect horse', when there dray, horse riding, horse, pony. Each of them represents a particular kind of 'horse-function'. As much as we can speak about the diversity of cultural, religious. experience.
According to D., justified by any version of a human. experience. True as that may be considered to-paradise positive impact on human. Consequently, the ideal behavior can be measured by its degree of adaptability to the specific and effective actions. The question: 'Is it possible to develop a unified view of kulturuN' in pragmatism should otritsat. reply. Impossible, for example. Absolute evaluation of the success in the diversity of living conditions and opposing views on them.
Kulturfilos. Concept D. is built around the phenomenon of culture religion. D. interprets rel. sense as the beginning of a creative and constructive. Because people depend on the universe, he had volunteered to sacrifice and self -. Here the importance of religion is invaluable. Science does not care whether it will affect the theory of human life. It is absolutely indifferent to the internal. innermost experience of the individual, to the value dimension of existence. This is why religion persists for many millennia.
Religion allows the individual to maintain internal peace, to suppress the passions and emotions. Hence, the question whether God exists, replaced by another: if religion pragmatically justified. Since there is no doubt the usefulness of pious feelings, nor their impact on human life, the fate of religion in culture is dependent on the comprehension of a human. Nature. Born purely empirical. criterion value of religion. It is found in the usefulness of its results for life.
D. also considering why rel. experience raznolik. He believes that religion reflects the different sides of a human. needs. Protestantism, for example, yields Catholicism in the beauty and aesthetics. However, he responds to other humane. properties.
On the one hand, according to D., there is a perception that religion - an anachronism, has already surpassed enlightened people. With others. hand, the need for consolation all the more acute. Judgments about religion. diverse phenomena. How should relate to the science of being born religiyahN According to AD, the very science of mysteries, mystical. phenomena may take on the role of religion. Mystic ancient religion and forms the basis of all religions. All religions have always had in his mystical. start. The difference between religion and mysticism that mysticism - a type of religion, to-ing stresses directly. intimate communion with God. Mystic - a religion in its most intense and lively stage. All the roots and the Center for Religion. life should be sought in the mystical. states of consciousness. Four characteristics are the criteria for distinguishing between mystical. experiences: ineffable, mystical. experience is difficult to play well-established linguistic means, . not because, . it is emotional in nature and alien intelligence, intuitiveness, . is a special form of knowledge, . when a person enters into the depths of truth, . closed to the sober mind; brevity; inaction will - the mystic begins to feel its will as it were paralyzed or even in the power of some kind of higher power,
The above D. mystical signs. Empirical describe it for those who are not immersed in this state. D. trying to put another question, to-ing widely discussed in modern. Cultural: To what extent can we trust the mystical. opytuN Opens whether he some phantoms of consciousness or demonstrates phenomenologically reliable realnostN Hd. value kulturfilos. Concept D. - To disclose the phenomenon of religion as a Concrete. personal relationships, to the rum-worth individual to the Divine. Religion, according to D., engaging personality and destiny coming into contact with the unity that is available to us the absolute reality, inevitably called upon to play an enormous role in culture, the history of mankind.