ALE (Lacan), Jacques( French explorer, founder of the linguistic or structural. Psychoanalysis)
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Biography ALE (Lacan), Jacques
(1901-1981) - French. researcher, creator of the structural or Linguistic. Psychoanalysis. Having started his career as a medical practitioner, L. 30-ies. seriously studying philosophy, psychology, aesthetics, art, lit-ru. Result of its efforts to synthesize honey. and human knowledge was a doctor. dis. 'On paranoich. psychosis and its relation to the individual '(1932), the findings of a swarm of widely-used spare. aestheticians, action-Vedas, figures artist. Culture. The views expressed by L. ideas formed the basis of 'paranoich. critics' N. Dali. From the middle. 30-ies. L. devotes himself ped. activities. Research in Paris, psychological. and French. psihoanalitich. on the islands, direction Paris, Freudian school (1964-80) put forward L. in a number of known evrop.psihoanalitikov.
Scientific credibility L. associated with the new - structuralist - direction psihoanalitich. studies, beginning to-rum was laid to them in the middle. 50-ies. He went beyond and classical. structuralist and orthodox Freudianism, outlined new prospects for research, headed vliyat. scientific school, fell apart after his death. Numerous. disciples and followers continue to develop his ideas in the field psihoanalitich. therapy, ethnology, rhetoric. Philosophical and aesthetic. views of LA, which determined in time theor. thrust magazine 'Tel Quel', were the foundation of structural psihoanalitich. Aesthetics.
L. comes from the fact that the unconscious is structured like a language. It seeks to rational interpretation of the unconscious, seeking its empirical relationship. and theor. levels neklassich. principles of justification of knowledge, the study of being and knowledge. Problem of structural psychoanalysis - to restore the concept of libido as the embodiment of creative. beginning in humane. life, a fruitful source of conflict, the engine humane. progress. Building on a tradition. for neo-and postfreydizma trends deseksualizatsii unconscious, L. arranges the original concept of its denaturation, debiologizatsii. It provides a new tradition of interpretation bessoznat. desires as structurally ordered ripple. This idea is actively developing its followers, the term 'pulse' - one of the key to postfreydistskoy aesthetics. Having lost its randomness, the unconscious becomes cultivated, which allows you to convert pulses into a work of art, etc.. cultural phenomena. Int. structuring mechanism combines all levels of the psyche, it functions like a language, and in this sense should understand the words of L., that the unconscious - is the language: it is not only about the linguistic. understanding the language of symbolic. level, but also about the 'language' ripples on the lower level of the imaginary, where the psychology and physiology are merged.
Methodologically, a cross-cutting themes of aesthetics L. is the question of the relation between the real, imaginary and symbolic. These concepts he considers the most important coordinates of existence, the subject is constantly synthesize past and present. The originality of the concepts of L. compared with Freud is that the place of 'it' is real, I perform the role of the imaginary, the function of the superego - the symbolic. At the same time as a real life function correlate with Freud's categories of needs, at this level there is a subject needs. On the basis of forming an imaginary, or a human. subjectivity, the object of desire. Unconscious symbolic opposed by L. conscious imagination, the real essence remains the same on the outside of the study.
L. considers trinomial 'real-imaginary-symbolic "primordial life, seeks to explore the ratio of its component methods of exact sciences. He divides artist. images on the real, imaginary and symbolic. The perception in the real is divided. Reaction to this in terms of the imaginary is the desire to destroy the objects of alienation, their aggressive subordinate their own interests. Single, total, perfect perception may be only due to the symbolic, is embodied in the forms of art, a perfect mirror. The most appropriate model of the mirror-symbolic nature of art L. considers cinema. Exploring the close relationship of art cinema and the STR, it creates a 'machine', Non-anthropomorphical concept of the genesis and structure of the aesthetic. consciousness.
Another original feature of the methodology A. linked to the concept of dreams. Unlike classical. Freudianism, he distributed 'laws of Dreams' on waking period, thus giving rise to his followers (eg, Metsu) treat the artist. process as a 'daydream'. Dream and reality are close together on the grounds that they pulsate bessoznat. desire, such as mirages and phantoms. Reality is perceived in a dream as an image reflected in a mirror. Psychoanalysis reality allows the mind to explain every act, and this alone justifies the existence of consciousness. However, the dream is stronger reality, . because it allows for total justification for the level of the unconscious, . displace the tragic with the symbolic, . turn the subject of a pawn, . and the object - a mirage, . recognizable only by its name, . through speech,
. L. shared tradition. structuralist concept of the primacy of language, able to soften the passions through the verbalization of desire and regulate companies. relations.
In developing his concept of language, L. relies on several provisions of the general and structural linguistics, de Saussure, H. Chomsky, I. Mukarzhovskogo. Something new that he has made to the methodology of research in this area of knowledge, primarily due to trends desemiotizatsii language. L. absolutized Saussure's ideas about the dichotomy of the signifier and signified, opposing Saussurian the idea of the mark as a whole, unifying concept (signified) and Loudspeaker. image (meaning), the concept of the gap between them, separating the signifier. Methodology. Saussure's approach drew L. opportunity to learn the language as a form of an abstract contain side. Experience of a medical practitioner analyst strengthened his hand in thought, . that in the speech flow of the patient-neurotic meaning divorced from the signified (the latter, and should identify in the course of the dialogue, . disentangled the nodes of speech and removing, . Thus, . painful symptoms), . signified slips, . not connecting with meaning,
. In sharp those of the sliding of the patient's speech was able to fall through entire blocks mean. Problem of structural psychoanalysis - to investigate the structure of the speech stream at the level of meaning, which coincides with the structure of the unconscious. Methodology. novelty is also distinguished by the desire to combine into a single aesthetic. theory of structural-psihoanalitich. of the real, imaginary, symbolic, signified and meaning, sign and meaning; synchrony and diachrony, language and speech.
The image of the language network, covers the world and transforms it into an ironic text, was one of the philosophical and aesthetic. landmarks of postmodern culture. The idea of the structure bessoznat. willingness of LA, the original concept of the ratio of the unconscious and language decentred subject gave impetus to a new, different from the modernist interpretation of artist. Creativity. Attractive to theoreticians and practitioners of postmodernism were also postfreydistskie interpretation of transfer, . libidinal attachment and ripple, . associated with the phases of symbolism in art, . as a metaphor and metonymy, . as well as the phenomena of sliding of the signified.,