LEVIN Kurt( Germanic-American psychologist)
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Biography LEVIN Kurt
(1890-1947) - Germany and American psychologist. Was close to the Gestalt. Criticized the concept of associative affective-volitional acts and teachings of H. Aha of determining tendencies. Using the physical concept of 'field' and the description of the principles adopted in the topology, developed the concept of dynamic system behavior, to-paradise is under stress, when the disturbed balance between the individual and the environment. According to the teachings of L. about motivation, the motives are the objects - various parts of the 'living space', in to-ryh individual feels the need, or kvazipotrebnost - the intention. Themselves become objects of the environment at the same motivational power and lose it when the need (or kvazipotrebnost) is satisfied. L. rejected the notion that the need is biologically predetermined constant, and the energy and dynamics of the motive closed within the individual. L. developed experimental methodologies to study motivation, in particular the level of attraction, zany, memorizing finished and unfinished actions, etc.. Psychological 'space', he depicted with the help of graphic symbols, sharing its borders and barriers in the areas that change their shape. They were developed as a special geometric model to describe the motion vectors of the subject in the Psychological field, and his idea of 'that leads to chemuN' (cm. Topological Psychology). Further L. created a new research program, which reflected the current social demands. From the analysis of individual motivation, he moved to the study of group dynamics, treating the group as a dynamic whole, is rallying its forces interacting within. This has required the L. and his staff a pilot study of leadership, conflict and other socio-psychological problems that arise in the group.