Benedict Spinoza( Nederlands philosopher)
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Biography Benedict Spinoza
(1632-1677) - Netherlands philosopher. According to. people - holistic, natural being, to-cerned with the heart and soul as the attributes of a single substance are inseparable and are determined by the same material causes (God, the identical nature). In his view, the order and connection of ideas is the same as the order and connection of things ( 'Ethics', 1677). Will, like other mental processes, strictly deterministic, and the illusion of freedom arises because of ignorance of the causes of human action. The Free these actions are when they are committed on the basis of knowledge required, the more active the person, the more he is free. In human nature inherent desire for self-preservation. It is expressed in a particular spiritual and bodily act - attraction to-Roe, together with two primary emotions - joy and sadness underlies the diversity of motives and feelings of man. Joy increases the body's ability to act, sadness limits its. S. believed that the objective-psychological approach makes it possible to consider the feelings with the same precision as the given line and surface geometry. The lowest kind of knowledge is sensory-associative (sensory experience), higher - rational knowledge, the highest - intuitive. The idea of. of psychophysical monism (as opposed to psychophysical parallelism, and psychophysical interaction) was perceived Gestalt psychology, his treatment of desire (motivation, afferentivnost to-cerned neutralized perception) influenced psychoanalysis. In C. oriented R. S. Vygotsky in his criticism of the dualist theory of the emotions and motives of behavior.