Jaspers (Jaspers) Karl( German existentialist philosopher, psychologist, cultural studies)
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Biography Jaspers (Jaspers) Karl
(1883-1969) - It. existentialist philosopher, psychologist, cultural studies. After graduating in 1901 Classic. school, he studied at the Juridical. and honey. f-max Heidelberg. Zap. I have a great reputation. brought work on the psychopathology of prominent figures from Europe. culture (Holderlin, Swedenborg, Van Gogh, Nietzsche, Strindberg). Philos. views I. reflected in the 1931-32 published in three volumes 'Philosophy'. In the years of Nazism, he was in opposition to the regime. After the war I. becomes one of the spiritual leaders of Germany.
Kulturologich. views I. based on Christ. world outlook. Causes and early culture of the absolute transcendence and directly connected with God. Based on the apostolic message, I. argues that the mystical. illumination exceeds all Philosophy. sophistication (Wed. 1 Corinthians. 2:14; 3:19). He believes that to understand the goals and objectives of cultural empirical. and intelligent techniques are not suitable. Science is too rational to comprehend the Hereafter. Therefore svoeobr. quintessential cultural arts advocates, the base-cerned to the principle of intuitive perception of the world. The task of art is to restore the lost connection with God. Means to establish a communicative relationship with the transcendental reality is a catharsis in many ways reminiscent of mystical. ecstasy.
Developing the ideas of Kierkegaard and Nietzsche, I. trying to establish the origins, the development and purpose of culture through the transition from the external, empirical. of being a 'genuine' culture in the field of humane. spirit in the field of transcendence. Breakthrough in otherworldly true reality associated with I. the 'boundary situations'. In this situation the person is involved, when in front of him there is a choice, which is crucial to its fate ( 'To be or not bytN' Hamlet, 'Either-or' Kierkegaard). According to Ya, such situations are also peculiar history and culture. Exercising their choice and realizing that their freedom and culture for a long time determines the path of development. Having exhausted the potentialities of development, culture is a new frontier situation, out of a swarm-linked with the acquisition of new (transcendental) knowledge. The border situation is not necessarily a logical. investigation in. Cultural Development. It can be imposed from outside: eg., The expansion of Persis. culture was stopped by the Greeks in the 5. BC. The victory gave the Greeks the opportunity to continue developing their curr. culture that was, with t. sp. Ya, decisive for the existence Zap.-Europe. personality. A Roman victory over Carthage finally guaranteed the development of the ideals of a culture inherent sovr. zap. on-woo. Thus, the dynamics of culture linked to the successful promotion of culture from one situation to another border. The purpose of this movement in the absolute value is not available (because of transcendence), but includes, sense and gradually becomes clear in retrospect.
The culture I. understands the world of life forms - the institutions, ideas, beliefs associated with a common origin, language and destiny. The founder was a man of culture, as his ancestors were able to break through into conscious acts and creations of the spirit. The reasons for translating culture through Rights is initially based in predcheloveke openness to all its capabilities, indicating that the unprecedented destiny of man.
The emergence of a culture bound I. with the emergence of the ability to transfer to other generations of spiritual wealth, with the rationalization of life through technology (guns) with focus on the acts of ancestors, . exempting from the fear of demons, . to-rye symbolized the opposing forces of nature to man,
. Demonic. Force is the story. read the experienced reality. However, 'a great alternative to' - divine or demonic, polytheism, or a single transcendent foundation - was resolved in favor of the man of God. A huge influence on this decision has axial time, the first boundary situation in the developed culture. In the period of 800-200 years. BC. OCH. culture of antiquity decided in favor of monotheism, and for a long time determined the further development of culture for all mankind. This choice signified that all cultures of the world connects unity of origin and the prospect of further mergers in obschechelovech. culture based on shared values.
Cultural-historical. periodization I. is closely dependent of Christ. concept of history. Axle KHrist. Periodization - Jesus, so the story is divided into two parts - before and after Christmas. KHrist. periodization is also characterized by the idea of milestones, to-rye, in turn, lead to further division in the history of. Axis periodization I. is approximately 500 g. BC. At this time there is a man sovr. Cultural type. This is a genuine, existential man, to-ing is not subject to the flow of history, but overcomes his home as his fate. YA. divides the history of 'doosevuyu', when people still did not know their purpose, and the 'axis', when teologich. designs of the development of culture have become ever more assimilated.
The purpose of a human. existence of X, - personal independence. It is achieved by reference to the original (transcendental) being. That is why the axial time, the formation of genuine culture, so much humanity. According to J., 'all the great ups humane. life 'took place only through the revival of the axial worldview or debate with him. West, for example., His specificity, based on the phenomena of freedom, identity, rationality, science and technology required to Greek values. Culture. So forgetting the ancient heritage inevitably led to barbarism. Permanent return to the ideas of axial age shows that the values of this era will be constantly reinvented, but will never be repealed. They are universal. The notion of the universality of culture is revealed I. in the approach to the explanation of its origins and purpose. Initially, a single culture, passing a series of transformations that will unite mankind in a comprehensive manner, absorbing all. Such an approach, combining universalism and eschatology, as I have in common representations. with Christ. the concept of cultural-historical. process.
However, there are some differences. According to Ya, cultural-historical. process is a correlation of all its elements, their general communication and continuous transformation. Essential for transformation is nihilism. Despite п+я-я-пTя+. attitude toward it, I. recognizes its importance as antidogmatich. means. Nihilism protects from absolute, and provides, ultimately, to free choice of cultural. Today zap. Culture, according to Ya, too much saturated nihilist, a spirit that denies her the necessary constructive. Her departure from the idea of world order (Logos) poses in front of her two goals obschechelovech. significance. They are the real justification for the very reason of existence and creation of conditions for the infinity of communications at any level for the entire population of Earth.