VOROSHILOV Klimnet Efremovich( The activity of the revolutionary movement, the military and state leader, Marshal of the Soviet Union (1935), twice Hero of the Soviet Union (1956, 1968), Hero of Socialist Labor (1960).)
Comments for VOROSHILOV Klimnet Efremovich
Biography VOROSHILOV Klimnet Efremovich
(1881-1969), was born on January 23 (4 February) 1881 in the village of Upper Ekaterinoslav province in the family of a railway guard. From childhood he worked, he graduated two classes Zemstvo School. From 1896 he worked at Yuryev Steel Plant, since 1902 - in Lugansk. In 1903 joined the RSDLP, Bolshevik. In 1905, the chairman of the Luhansk Board of Workers' Deputies, the delegate of the Stockholm and London Congress RSDLP. Repeatedly arrested, was sent to the Arkhangelsk province, escaped from exile. In 1908-1917 led party work in Baku, St. Petersburg, Tsaritsyn, again arrested, exiled in the Arkhangelsk province and territory Cherdynsky. In March 1917 the chairman of the Luhansk council, city council, municipal committee of the Bolsheviks. In November 1917 Commissioner of the Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee of City Hall, participated in the establishment of the Cheka and led the first arrests in the city. Since January 1918 the chairman of the Cheka in Petrograd Protection.
In March 1918, Voroshilov was the commander of the 1 st Lugansk socialist Detachment. From April 1918 - organizer and commander of the 5-th Ukrainian Army, who quit under pressure from the Whites to Tsaritsyn. In July - early August 1918 in command of the forces in the defense of Tsaritsyn, where he met and became friends with Stalin. In August-September 1918 Member of the Military Council of the North Caucasus Military District, in September-October 1918 a member of the Revolutionary Military Council and the Assistant Commander of the Southern Front. In October - December 1918 the commander of the 10 th Army.
From January 1919 - People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of Ukraine. Organized a punitive operation to eliminate teams Ataman Grigoryev. In March 1919 at the VIII Congress of the RCP (b) Voroshilov became an active participant in the so-called 'Military Opposition', . opposed the policy of the then People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs and Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic of LD Trotsky to the establishment of a regular army and demanded the army to drive out all the military experts, . build the Red Army militia solely on the basis of, . subordinate 'revolutionary discipline',
. In June-July 1919 commanded the 14 th Army and the internal Ukrainian Front, acting against Ukrainian nationalist troops. However SM Budyonny was among the main organizers of the 1 st Cavalry (November 1919) and became a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Army. In this position remained the entire last period of the Civil War - until May 1921. He was awarded three Orders of the Red Banner and honorable revolutionary weapon. During the fighting showed no talent commander, characterized by distrust in military expert. During the war with the Poles supported the command of the Southwestern Front (AI Egorov, Stalin) refused to comply promptly with the directive of Moscow on the transfer of 1-st Cavalry in the operational control of Commander of the Western Front Tukhachevsky.
At the head of the delegates X Congress of the RCP (B.) in 1921 participated in the suppression of the Kronstadt uprising. Since 1921 member of the RCP (b). In 1921-1924 member of the South-East Bureau of the CC RCP (b), Commander of the North Caucasian Military District. Supervised the destruction of the rebels in the Caucasus. In 1924 the commander of the Moscow Military District and a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR. In June 1924 - December 1925 Member of the Organizing Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b). In inner-party struggle has always spoken from the position of the majority, supported Stalin in his struggle for power in the Party and State.
Not surprisingly, after the death of Mikhail Frunze choice Stalin stood at the Voroshilov - November 6, 1925 he was appointed People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs of the USSR and Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR. Since 1926 member of the Politburo (from 1952 - the Bureau) of the Central Committee. Voroshilov to justify the hopes of his friend and patron. In the fight against the Trotskyist, . Zinoviev-Kamenev, . United Trotsky-Zinoviev, . then the so-called right-wing opposition, he always unconditionally supported Stalin, . performed supporter of a strengthened national economy and the industrialization of complete collectivisation of the village, . other undertakings leader,
. Soviet propaganda intensively fanned Merit Voroshilov, calling him 'the first marshal'. In 1932, the Central Board Osoaviahima fulfilled standards set for shooting a rifle from the honorary title and the icon 'Voroshilov Marksman', the initials of his full name was called the famous heavy tank 'KV'.
In the late 1920's - early 1930's was the head of the commission of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) to direct the activities of the Bolshoi Theater, was known as the famous theatergoer and a patron of the ballet
. Voroshilov hostile attitude to his talented and more qualified assistants (MN Tukhachevsky and others), but was patronized by former colleagues on the 1 st Cavalry, many of whom did not have data for senior posts
. He has made a significant contribution to the exaltation of military merit Stalin, . firing of Stalin and the Red Army (1929), . Stalin and the construction of the Red Army (1939), . which presented the chief creator of the Red Army and the organizer of almost all the victories in the Civil War,
Voroshilov was a docile supporter of organized on the initiative of Stalin's campaign of mass repression in the country and the principal conductor of repression in the Red Army, which has caused devastating damage to the combat capability of troops. Was among the instigators of the massacre of the highest leadership of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army (RKKA) in the guise of the elimination of the so-called 'military-fascist conspiracy' (case Tukhachevsky, Yakir, Uborevich and others). At a 1 to 4 June, 1937 expanded meeting of the Military Council for the People's Commissariat of Defense with the participation of members of the Politburo of the CPSU (b) made a presentation, . in which he argued, . that 'bodies Commissariat disclosed in the army long existed, and with impunity wield, . strictly conspired, . counter-revolutionary fascist organization, . headed people, . who stood at the head of the army ',
. Voroshilov personally argued posing NKVD lists for the arrest of the generals and senior officers. Signed Voroshilov is on the 186 lists for 18 474. Whole-led People's Commissar of Defense in the Red Army had been 'cleaned up' about 40 thousand commanders.
In August 1939, Voroshilov was headed by the Soviet delegation at the talks ended inconclusively with France and Britain on joint action against Germany. After huge losses and failures of action of the Red Army during the Russo-Finnish winter war 1939-1940, it became clear that the new conditions of war Voroshilov can not competently manage the armed forces. Therefore, 7 May 1940, Stalin took it down as People's Commissar of Defense and made deputy chairman of the SNK and the chairman of the Defense Committee for SNK (remained in office until May 1941). He was commissioned to oversee the defense industry.
During the Great Patriotic War, was a member of the State Defense Committee and the Supreme Command. 10 July 1941 he was appointed commander of the troops of the North-West direction, but on August 31, showing a complete inability to lead troops in modern war, was relieved of command. In September 1941, was directed by the Commander of Leningrad Front, which was unable to stop the German offensive. Being a brave man, who personally tried to lead troops into battle, but for the successful operations of this, of course, there was little. Under the threat of surrender of Leningrad, Stalin withdrew Voroshilov and replaced it with Zhukov. In September - November 1942 held a largely formal post commander of the partisan movement. In January 1943, coordinating the actions of the Leningrad and Volkhov fronts for breaking the blockade of Leningrad. In 1943, accompanied by Stalin at the Tehran Conference. In December 1943, was sent to the Independent Coastal Army to participate in the development plan of operation for the liberation of the Crimea and the organization of interaction of ground forces with the fleet.
In the 1945-1947 chairman of the Allied Control Commission in Hungary. Since 1946 deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. Because of the unsuccessful action during the war, lost respect for Stalin and was actually suspended from making important policy decisions. Even on the rare meetings conducted by the Soviet Politburo, he was invited by no means always. At the XIX Congress leader criticized Voroshilov, among other old members of the Politburo.
After Stalin's death in March 1953 was appointed to the honorable, but malovliyatelnuyu post of chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, thus becoming the official head of state. In 1956-1957 on the basis of rejection of policy Khrushchev de-Stalinization of society and the country became friendly with 'anti-Party group' GM Malenkov, Kaganovich and Molotov. Supported them at a meeting of the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee, when the majority of its members were demanding Khrushchev. However, when the Central Committee plenum in June 1957 defeat of 'group', it became apparent Voroshilov in his speech repented, acknowledged the mistake and denounced the factional. Khrushchev and his entourage decided not to touch the Voroshilov as a popular hero of the Civil War. This is for a time it was saved, and he retained his office. In May 1960 'state of health' was dismissed as chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, in July was removed from the Presidium, and in October 1961 has not elected a member of the CPSU Central Committee. However, it left a member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. In 1961, Voroshilov asked the XXII Congress of the CPSU with the letter in which he again admitted error and its participation in the organization of repression. After coming to power, Brezhnev and early latent rehabilitation of Stalin once again became a member of the CPSU Central Committee.
Voroshilov died in Moscow on December 2, 1969. He was buried in Red Square
. In 1930 the Voroshilov was called a lot of cities and settlements, including Ussuriysk (in 1935-1957 - Voroshilov), Lugansk (in 1935-1958 - Voroshilovgrad), Stavropol (in 1935-1943 - Voroshilovsk) Kommunarsk ( in 1931-1961 - Voroshilovsk)
. After the death of Voroshilov Lugansk in 1970 again gave the name Vorochilovgrad (since 1991 - again Lugansk).