Bruce Jacob Vilimovich( Military and statesman, one of the closest associates of Peter!.)
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Biography Bruce Jacob Vilimovich
General feldtseyhmester and subsequently Earl and Field-Marshal, the compiler of the calendar, was born in 1670, according to one data in Moscow, but on the other - in Pskov. Received an excellent education at home and especially a passion for mathematics and natural sciences, which cover the end of his life. Recorded together with his elder brother of the king's amusement around 1683, . it in 1687 and 1689 respectively participated, . being the rank of lieutenant, . in the Azov campaigns Golitsyn, and was awarded the estate of 120 quarters of land and money in the amount of 20 - 30 rubles, . as for the first campaign, . and the second,
. Since 1689, Mr.. He is the inseparable companion of Peter and in his campaigns, and in some traveling, and each time was generously reward him king who loved. During the siege of Azov in 1696, Mr.. He, incidentally, was engaged in the mapping of land from Moscow to the shores of Asia Minor, which was subsequently published in Amsterdam, and in the same year was granted the rank of colonel. Siding in Amsterdam to the suite of Peter, . he is in the same year, . at the command of its superpower patron, . sailed to England and here (in London) spent about a year, . and perhaps more, . engaged mainly in mathematics and astronomy, . under the leadership of British scientists,
. Upon his return to Russia, Bruce, . as a scholar, . constantly received from Peter's instructions to perform various scientific works, . most part the translation and publication of various books, . and at the same time with great love and diligence involved in astronomy, . as evidenced by his correspondence with Peter,
In 1700, Mr.. He was granted a major general of the Ordnance, . participated in the siege of Narva, . and on the capture of Imereti Prince Alexander Archillovicha (1674 - 1711), . first Russian general feldtseyhmestera, . joined the administration of post-general feltseyhmestera, . which finally approved only after the death of Prince, . In 1711, Mr.,
. Failure of Narva brought upon him the wrath of Peter, who removed him from office, but a year later again gave him and made her head of Novgorod Order. As head of the artillery was in the army in the early years of the Great Northern War, . contributed to the capture of Petersburg, . Nyenskans, . Narva, . commanded the left flank of the army at the Battle of Lesnaya, . and in the battle of Poltava helped win over Sweden, . command of all the contemporary Russian artillery, . consisted of 72 shells, . for which he was awarded the Order of St. Peter the Apostle Andrew,
. In 1710, Mr.. participated in the siege and capture of Riga, in 1711, Mr.. accompanied Peter the Prut campaign, and next year's military operations in northern Germany, in alliance with the Danes and Saxons, ended his military career. Around 1714 came the rumor of theft of public money, and although subsequently tracing the rumors are true, but the wrath of Peter is not brought upon the guilty. In 1717, with the establishment of colleges, Peter appointed him president of the Mining and Manufacturing College, with the title of senator, and in 1718, Mr.. sent the first minister of Alania Congress for peace negotiations. In 1721, upon the conclusion of Nystadt world, he received the dignity of Earl Russia Empire and the estate of 500 peasant households. The death of Peter Bruce, first as actively continued his studies and Panels, . and artillery: but then, . due, . probably, . strife, . occurred between the lords of those times, . despite royal him mercy, . began to request the resignation, . to him and was given in the next 1726, . with the rank of Field Marshal,
. From this year, he settled on his estate Glinka, Pskov Province, 42 miles from Moscow, and lived there until the end of his life, occasionally naezzhaya to Moscow and indulging in purely scientific pursuits. Died April 19, 1735, leaving no offspring. Buried, as is evident from the report of the Empress Count Saltykov, May 14, in the German Quarter. Inherited the title of count, with the highest resolution, his nephew, Bruce Alexander Romanovich. In terms of knowledge (he was an astronomer and mathematician, artillery and engineer, botanist and mineralogist, sfragist and geographer, author of several academic and translator of many works) Count I. Bruce was, undoubtedly, education of all associates Peter. Being engaged in compiling and translating works, Bruce oversaw the progress of the printing business in Russia. Under his direct supervision in the civil printer to print a lot of different books and pamphlets, . such as: book Lexicon, . book Mathematics Navigatorskoy School, . Description of the city of Jerusalem and Athos School, . Image Globe earthly and heavenly, . Battle at the Prut and t,
. n. But most of all his name is known as the author of the calendar, who first appeared in print in 1709, Mr.. "invention" Basil Kipriyanova, and "supervised" Jacob Vilimovicha. Although he himself subsequently did not publish calendars, nevertheless rightly be regarded as the founder of the calendar business in Russia, as well as taking the main part in drawing up their own, imitating the predominantly German calendars. Left of it as a monument to his studies, library and study different "kurioznyh things", which at the time to read only in Russia. Before his death he bequeathed them to the Kunst-cell Academy of Sciences. The composition of the two very diverse: there are books and maps, numbering about 735, and manuscripts, and instruments, and all sorts of rare objects (about 100).
Wed. Pekarsky, "Science and Literature under Peter the Great", "Annals of Russian literature and antiquities, Volume I - Article. Zabelina Library and Cabinet of Count YA.V. Bruce "" Who was BryusN "- article in" Religious Calendar "for 1868. - And a biographical sketch, compiled Khmyrova in Artillery magazine for 1866, N 2, 3 and 4. V. R.