Andreeva Maria( Actress)
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Biography Andreeva Maria
It would seem, why did the talented and beautiful actress to become a revolutionary? Yes, this flame, that the prince called her "comrade Phenomenon". Just because she was born under the sign of Leo, so had to come to know and learn everything that was happening around, and everywhere be the first and only the first.
In 1868, a family of a nobleman Fedorova Yurkovsky daughter,. Masha was very pretty and has attracted the attention of, . therefore, strict head of the family, . who wanted to bring up their children from "real people", . demanded, . to her dressed in the most ugly dresses, . and even ordered to replace the pearl buttons on the bone,
. But when Mary grew up, her beauty has been impossible to hide. According to the memoirs of contemporaries, Andreyev was "dazzlingly beautiful" ...
Fedorov-Yurkovsky became principal director Alexandrinsky Theater. Following in the footsteps of their parents (her mother was an actress), Maria also selects Theater. Sooner after graduating from high school, she enrolled in drama school, and in 18 years went to Kazan, which first appeared on the scene. Two years later, Mary married Andrew Zhelyabuzhsky important official, who was older than her 18 years. Officially, he served as the chief controller of the Kursk and Nizhny Novgorod railways, but beyond that he was a member of the Society of Arts and Letters, a member of the Board Rossiyskogo Theatrical Society. In 1888 the couple had a son Yuri, in the 1894-meters - daughter Catherine.
Zhelyabuzhskiy received a new assignment, and the couple moved to Tiflis. Maria joined the artistic society, which united all the most talented artistic forces in Tbilisi. In his performances were often spouses Zhelyabuzhskiy under the pseudonym Andreeva (then he has remained at Maria Feodorovna). Andreeva of Tiflis stage involved not only in drama, but in the opera - singing lessons gave her a singer Zarudnev.
Beautiful young actress was fascinated by the whole of Tiflis. During one of the banquets in love with her young Georgians said in a toast to her honor, then made a little pause, added: "After a toast in honor of a beautiful woman no one would dare to drink from the cup". And in the eyes of all present ... ate it.
After many years Andreeva, sitting in a circle of guests, remembered that episode with a sigh: "Yes, things of the past days, and now no one for me, will not chew on the glasses, and the Georgians of no more". What was present at the table actor and director Konstantin Mardzhanov (Kote Mardzhanishvili) offended, said: "You are mistaken, Maria Feodorovna. Gnaw glasses - we have the most common thing. I'll prove it ... Right now I drink to your health and zakushu glass ". He drained his glass and then raised it to his mouth. Wife Lunacharskogo involuntarily screamed. Then Mardzhanov shyly said: "Sorry, Natalia, I understand - you feel sorry for such a glass, can not be fragmented wine service" - and put it in place. Andreyev was laughing to tears.
Family Zhelyabuzhskiy moved to Moscow, and Andreeva began performing at the Society of Arts and Letters, which was led Stanislavski. The debut took place on December 15, 1894 in the play "Light, but no heat" by A. Ostrovsky, and N. Solovieva. Her partner on the stage was Stanislavsky.
For three seasons Andreev played eleven roles, she studied at the Moscow Conservatory, together with Stanislavsky and Nemirovich-Danchenko participated in the creation of the Moscow Art Theater. In the first years of its existence Andreev played key roles: Hedda Gabler in Ibsen's drama of the same name, Irina in Three Sisters ", Natasha in" The Lower Depths "and other. Theater critic Sergei Glagol said: "Ms. Andreeva - a wonderful golden-haired fairy, the wicked, like a trapped animal in a cage, the poetic and the air, like a fantastic dream."
Was the press, the public love, success. Herself the Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna wrote her portrait. It seemed there only glory and laurels ...
But Andreeva suddenly carried away ... "Capital" and other Marxist literature. joined the ranks of RSDLP - secret from her husband, secretly from the theater, from colleagues. At the same time she managed to create a tempestuous affair with Savva Morozov. As we know, can not be all things to, and when appeared in her life, Maxim Gorky, artistic career, so a good start, gradually disappeared. At most, what Andreeva could count on - the small role of the second plan.
Stanislavsky once said: Andreeva - actress "useful", Knipper - "desperately needed". Olga Knipper was a silent queen of Art Theater. This infuriated Andreyev, but all her attempts to seize the crown were unsuccessful.
. April 12, 1902 Andreeva sends Stanislavsky perturbed message: "... the last straw for me was a conversation with Sawa Timofeevich, . who said, . that you find, . I began to casually refer to the theater, . not engaged in roles and generally play the general tone of their, . and this is equivalent, . I think, . to, . I become banal actress ..,
. To argue about trivial I am an actress or not - not my business. Perhaps quite right, those who find it, I say this without any "humiliation is worse than pride, quite simply. But I think that I still can be useful, can sometimes play well, and really especially if you want, and this would have helped me. During the four years that I serve, and the eight years that I'm playing you, do you not have become convinced that my person in my eyes always stood below the general business and my self-esteem often sacrificed, once it was necessary You or the cause? "
. Written duel ended with a letter Stanislavsky Andreeva from February 19, 1904: "Dear Maria Feodorovna, I learned with great sadness about your decision: to withdraw from his theater
. With no less sad, I am aware that my beliefs and tips now - irrelevant and powerless. I can do is more like regret and be silent ... "
After leaving the Art Theater, Andreyev went to the province. Plan, together with Gorky and Komissarzhevskaya create a new modern theater (the money it was going to give that same love with her Savva Morozov), a little play on the stage in Staraya Russa, then in Riga. But the deal only theater she could not.
That revolution, not the theater she gave up all his energy, his temperament and organizational talent. A married socialite woman, a famous actress - a great screen for the revolutionary underground organization. Assignments multiplied: from assistance in the preparation of the escape of the Bolsheviks from prison prior to Taganskaya storage tapes and cartridges in a desk. By that time, state councilor Zhelyabuzhskiy ceases to interest Andreev quite. Kids adjusted later with her sister. All forces can be "given to the fight" ...
... First meeting with Gorky was held in Sevastopol in 1900. Tour of Art took place in a sort of summer theater, and here in the intermission of the play "Hedda Gabler" in a thin plank doors dressing room there was a knock. Voice of Chekhov: "To you be, Maria Feodorovna? But I'm not alone with me Bitter '. Heart beat - heavens! And Chekhov, and Gorky!.. She got to meet. Anton Pavlovich came - I knew it long ago, even before it became an actress - for him a high figure in a slim Russian summer shirt, long hair, straight, long mustache and red. Is it bitter?.. "Damn!" God knows how you play beautifully "- Basit Gorki and shakes me out of all the forces hand. I looked at him with deep emotion, was very glad that he liked, and it is strange to me that he swore, his strange costume, high boots, razletayka, long straight hair, it's strange that he had rugged features, reddish mustache. Not so, I had imagined it. And suddenly from behind long lashes glanced blue eyes, his lips twisted into a charming childlike smile, his face seemed to me more beautiful than beautiful, and joyously heart skipped a beat. No! It is exactly as it is necessary that it was - thank God! ".." "Our friendship with him more strength to strength, we are bound by commonality of views, beliefs, interests. Gradually, I entered into all his undertakings, she knew many who stood by him more or less close. He sent me people from the Lower to requests to arrange them to do one or the other ... I'm awfully proud of his friendship and admired endlessly ... "
At the end of 1903, Andreev was the civil wife Gorky. He parted with Catherine Peshkova, but broke with it completely, but remained good, friendly relations for life. No one condemned the proletarian writer, but had harder Andreeva. She criticized, condemned, censured. Then there was a trip for two to America. From there the summer of 1906 Andreeva wrote to his sister: "Alexei wrote so much that I could hardly keep up with him. I'm writing a diary of our foreign host, . translate from the French one book, . little sewing, . word, . every way fill the day, . to the evening tired and fall asleep, . and not seen again, . because of good dreams, I see ... "In addition to the French, . She knew German and Italian, . led all correspondence Gorky,
. Mastered the art translation. Cared about the publication of works of Gorky, the payment of honoraria, acted more and more new orders of the party.
In October 1906, Gorky and Andreyev leave the United States and sent to Italy. It starts life in Capri. Their villa on the island became a refuge for many Russian emigres. All of them took Andreeva, feed, shelter. Gorky's book "Tales of Italy" was published with the author's dedication: "Maria Feodorovna Andreeva.
Back home, Andreyev became the financial agent of the Party and is looking everywhere for the means of revolutionary activity. Almost daily, wrote in Capri, Gorky informed about political developments. Lenin valued Andreev - for business acumen and ability all the "knock out" and get it.
Since October 1917 started a new countdown. Those who invested in the revolution of force, health and money, instantly wanted to get compensation: new positions and "portfolios". Not forgotten and Andreeva: it becomes Commissioner theaters and circuses Union communes in the Northern Region, I mean all of Petrograd and its environs. The diaries Korney Chukovsky have a record on April 18, 1919, as the study Chaliapin "flew commissar Maria Feodorovna Andreeva, well dressed, wearing a hat -" Yes, yes, I give orders, you will now be served! .. "Dispose. Allocated. Punish and pardon. If she most needed support - immediately appealed to Lenin. Appealed to the Block "directly and brazenly - to lead the Bolshoi Drama Theater, but he wisely refused.
When Gorky moved to Saar (near Berlin), Maria Feodorovna often come to him. Remembers Nina Berberova: "She was still beautiful, proudly wore his red head, played rings, rocking narrow shoe ... I never saw in her face, never heard in her voice, no charm. Probably, and without charm it once was beautiful. Visited Gorky and Ekaterina Pavlovna - his first wife and mother of his son ... "
In the early 20-ies in the writer's life there have been substantial changes. Place Maria Andreeva took another woman, who has become an indispensable secretary and cordial friend of the writer - Mura Budberg - "iron woman", which Berberova wrote a whole book. Gorky, parting with Marya, kept her steady relations.
When Gorky died in the crematorium was attended by three women. Galina Serebryakova in his book "On the other and themselves" wrote: "From the semi-darkness, clearly visibly, in mourning dress appeared Ekaterina Pavlovna Peshkov - the constant friend of Gorky. She relied heavily on her daughter's hand. Behind her was Maria Feodorovna Andreev with his son, filmmaker Zhelyabuzhskiy. And at a distance, all alone, stopped Mura Budberg. All three of these women something vaguely resemble one another: tall, handsome, proud and inspired ... "
Winter 1931 Andreev won his last appointment - was the director of the House of Scientists in Moscow. All the temperament and energy, not exhausted until the end, it has invested in new business. House of Scientists for many years to become one of the most interesting places of communication intellectual capital. Maria Feodorovna invited there many outstanding people, and she often performed with memories. Its main theme: Lenin and Gorky. While the most popular and winning themes. Spent unctuous texts came to cheer.
Maria Feodorovna Andreeva, died Dec. 8, 1953 at the age of 85 years. It would seem that all the canonical standards, Bolsheviks, she lived a great life, has brought great benefits to the revolution, Lenin was a companion and Gorky, and her name inscribed in the history of the Moscow Art Theater, she loved and was loved ... But according to eyewitnesses, in the coffin on her face was a mask of suffering. And no appeasement and peace. In 1961 a book was published MF Andreeva Correspondence. Memoirs. Articles ". Two years later it was completed and republished. You read these more than 700 pages and is amazed how everything smoothed.
Not life, but the life of. But the lioness and lioness in a cage are: