Gol'danskii Vitaly I.( Academic Russia Academy of Sciences, laureate of Lenin and State prizes)
Comments for Gol'danskii Vitaly I.
Biography Gol'danskii Vitaly I.
Born June 18, 1923 in the city of Vitebsk in the teacher's family.
Family Gol'dansky lived in Vitebsk, which later became world famous as the birthplace of Marc Chagall. Later moved to Leningrad, where Vitali went to school.
Parents, Joseph and Judith, and sister Mira had never been members of the party, but, like many at that time, piously believed in the ideals of communism, in the wisdom and infallibility of Stalin. Their faith was passed, and Vitaly. However, in 1937-1938, their share fell ordeal. Two relatives and brother were shot dead on his mother. Not shifting struck him grief, of a heart attack and died soon after his father. Vera mother and sister fell overnight. But, wanting to protect against possible trouble Vitali and experienced the shock, they never openly showed their painful experiences.
The first passion was the history of Vitaly. In the 12 years he received permission to visit the Leningrad Public Library, and the boy's favorite pastime was reading books on history, especially of old newspapers and magazines. However, from time to time appeared, and new aspirations, new ideas. Like many teenagers of that time, Vitaly wanted to get to Madrid, to fight fascism and defend the romantic ideal - Spanish Republic.
However, books and science still stood in the first place. In 9 th grade Vitaly fascinated chemistry, especially the problem of radioactivity. There was the idea of different emissions, numerous questions about their nature and character of human exposure. The schoolboy wrote a letter to Moscow, the Academy of Sciences, from which he forwarded to Leningrad, one of the largest Soviet oncologists - LM Shabad. He invited the boy to his laboratory, all thoroughly explained, gave the guinea pig and advised to grips with chemistry.
Graduated with honors from the school in 1939, Vitaly joined the chemistry faculty of Leningrad University. In the prewar years, the University has become for him a real celebration of entering the great life. Later he says: "Leningrad for me - not just the great and beautiful city. This is a huge part of life, . which involve unforgettable joy and sorrow, . happy period of childhood and school, . first friends and first student, . first teacher and first love, . to the smallest detail and painfully familiar homes and streets, . trench forty-first summer and winter of the blockade, . graves of his parents and living memory of the heart ",
The war caught Vitaly student, just having passed all examinations for second year. Memories of wartime still seem unreal to him: the construction of trenches near Novgorod, . gunshot wound during the bombing, . search missilemen nights at the end of the forty-first, . work in the district Komsomol committee, . hunger, . Hospital, . Finally, . "Road of Life across Lake Ladoga, and three weeks in a cool way of the freight in Kazan, along with his mother and sister,
Once in Kazan in April 1942, Vitaly Gol'danskii immediately resumed his studies at the Chemistry Department at the local university. He gradually came back to life after past hardships of the blockade of Leningrad. Here he first began to combine studies in renowned universities and the work of a modest laboratory in one of the institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, which was also evacuated to Kazan, in the lab corresponding member of Academy of Sciences, SZ Roginsky. The students of the Kazan University came after a unique opportunity to listen to the lectures of outstanding scientists of the country - academics Nesmeyanov, PA Rehbinder and other famous physicists and chemists.
Becoming undergraduate, VI Gol'danskii moves together with the laboratory in Moscow. Simultaneously with the transfer to a fifth course himfaka Lomonosov Moscow State University he became a junior fellow of the Academy of Sciences. And again, as in Kazan, seminars, lectures and examinations are combined with intensive daily work in the laboratory. All this enabled successfully defended in 1944 diploma
. After graduation VI Gol'danskii began graduate of the Institute of Chemical Physics, where his supervisor and mentor, the eminent scientist Nikolai Nikolaevich Semenov, awarded in 1956 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
. In 1947, VI Gol'danskii brilliantly defended his thesis for the degree of Candidate of Chemical Sciences.
After the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Institute of Chemical Physics, like many other academic institutions, has focused its research on nuclear issues, and Vitaly I. first encountered the field of neutron physics. In 1949-1950 he was with a group of scientists involved in conducting unique experiments synchrocyclotron in Dubna. Results of experiments formed the basis for the establishment of nuclear fuel projects and develop new opportunities for nuclear energy.
Several years VI Gol'danskii worked at the Physical Institute of the PN Lebedev, where learned the foundations of various fields of physics. Here he performed classical research on the electromagnetic polarizabilities of hadrons and the determination of the constants of the proton polarizabilities, . research "Vavilov-Cherenkov" radiation of cosmic particles in the atmosphere, . predicted the existence and properties of previously unknown neutron-deficient isotopes, . theoretical basis for a new type of radioactive decay of nuclei - dvuprotonnuyu radioactivity, . in which the nucleus emit just a couple of its constituent particles (nucleons) - protons or neutrons,
. This finding was experimentally confirmed only in the mid 80-ies.
In 1952 Gol'danskii doctorate at the Academic Council, presided Kurchatov.
In subsequent years, VI Gol'danskii again at the Institute of Chemical Physics. Here he laid the foundation and successfully developed a new area of science - nuclear chemistry, studies the mutual relationship and influence of the chemical properties of matter and the characteristics of transforming nuclei and elementary particles. The observed phenomena have given unique information about structural and dynamic properties of molecular and crystalline environments of these nuclei. He discovered the quantum low-temperature limit the rate of chemical reactions. His results were outstanding importance in the development of problems of chemical and prebiotic evolution. It became clear that in the low-temperature environment, open space may well go the formation of organic molecules until proteins
. After a step from the laboratory to professor, . Head of the Laboratory, . VI Gol'danskii became a Corresponding Member of Academy of Sciences of the USSR in the department of Chemistry (1962), . Academician, Division of General and Technical Chemistry (1981), . department head, . then director of the Institute of Chemical Physics, Academy of Sciences, . Chairman of the Scientific Council of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR on chemistry of high-energy and the Board of the Academy of Sciences of synchrotron radiation,
Scientific discoveries VI Gol'danskii highly regarded in the country and abroad. He was awarded the winner of the Lenin and State prizes, . awarded the gold medal of the DI Mendeleev for a series of works on the exploration and use of new phenomena in low temperature chemistry (1975), . Gold Medal Semenov for collection of works on chemical physics, . including chemical kinetics (1996), . many scientific awards,
. He was elected a foreign member of the twelve foreign academies of sciences, including the United States, Sweden, Germany, Denmark, Finland, etc..
With the advent of perestroika and glasnost VI Gol'danskii plunged into big politics. Within 44 months - until the collapse of the USSR - it was people's deputy of the USSR, then defended the young shoots of democracy, appeared on television and in various media, agitating for freedom, for a nuclear-free peace and against militarism. Since 1987, VI Gol'danskii - Chairman of the Pugwash Committee of the USSR, member of the international executive committee and board of the Pugwash movement.
VI Gol'danskii possessed exceptional literary talents. It is brilliantly written and scientific articles and monographs, and prose and poetry, and humorous pieces, and "cruise" words and phrases. For a long time it was published in the 16 th page of the Literary Gazette, was deputy chairman of the All-Union Society "Knowledge".
VI. Gol'danskii died Jan. 14, 2001 in Moscow.