Boris Petrovsky( Hero of Socialist Labor, Academician of the Russia Academy of Sciences, Academician of the Russia Academy of Medical Sciences, Honorary Director Rossiyskogo Scientific Center of Surgery RAMS)
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Biography Boris Petrovsky
Born June 27, 1908 in Essentuki, but finds his homeland village Grateful Stavropol Territory (now g.Blagodarny), where at that time worked as his father Boris - Vasily Ivanovich Petrovsky (1880 g.rozhd.) Country doctor. His name was widely used among the population of Stavropol. In 1980, one of the buildings of the former Blagodarnenskoy st hospital was a memorial plaque, and one of the streets named after VI Petrovsky. In recent years, created and opened people's memorial museum VI Petrovsky g.Blagodarnom. Mother - Peter (urozhd.Shevchenko) Lidiya (1880 g.rozhd.). Wife - Peter (Timofeeva) Ekaterina Mikhailovna. Daughter - Peter's Marina (1936 g.rozhd.).
In 1916-1924 he. Boris Petrovsky was in high school Level II Kislovodsk. Family tradition formed his desire to follow the footsteps of his father. After school, he immediately went to work on disinfection disinfector station Kislovodsk. It also completed courses bookkeeping, stenography, medical training and began working as a messenger in the department of trade union 'Medsantrud'. At the same time vigorously preparing for entrance to university.
He is beckoning Medical Faculty, Moscow State University, where Boris Petrovsky dreamed of since childhood.
Even in Moscow, Boris advised to make an appointment with Hope Konstantinovny Krupskaya - Deputy People's Commissar of Education. Two days waiting in the People's Commissariat and meeting with N. Krupskaya were not in vain: BV Petrovsky received the blessing of examinations at MSU. After passing the test, to his great joy, BV Petrovsky was adopted at the Medical Faculty.
According to Petrovsky, years of study at the University strengthened his interest in surgery, showed the need for comprehensive and profound training in the first place as a doctor, and then as a 'narrow' specialist. Well aware, . that the surgeon can only be as versatile and fundamentally trained physician, . Petrovsky thoroughly studied the clinical disciplines, . physiology, . many hours spent in the dissecting, . mastering and improving surgical technique, . a lot of duty at the clinic and attended the rounds of senior colleagues, . performed the first independent operation,
. Among the professors and teachers Petrovsky were prominent scientists: the remarkable surgeons AV Martynov, . Burdenko, . Hertsen, . anatomist PA Karuzin, . chemists VS Gulevich and AV Stepanov, . histologist BI Lavrent'ev, . physiologist M. Shaternikov, . patalogoanatom A. Abrikosov, . therapists - DM Russia, . DD Pletnev, . Burmin, . MI Konchalovsky, . EE Fromgold, . Urologist RM Fronshteyn, . obstetrician-gynecologist M. S. Malinovsky, . Pediatrician VI Molchanov, . psychiatrist PB Gannushkina, . neurologist, GI Rossolimo, . pathophysiology SI Chechulin, . hygienist and organizer of health NASemashko,
Remarkable school for the future surgeon was involved in transactions with AV Martynov, and later - with the PA Herzen, Jauzsky night duty in a hospital, work in student academic circle. Boris often visited the laboratory SI Chechulina and S. Bryuhonenko, which created the world's first heart-assist device - 'avtozhektor'.
During study Petrovsky has been active in social work, was Chairman of the Union Institute, was fond of playing chess, hiking travel. One of the brightest impressions became acquainted with the great physiologist Pavlov, meeting at the chessboard with the future of the repeated world champion Mikhail Botvinnik
. Translation of the senior courses - on Pirogovka that housed the clinic and the laboratory 1-st Moscow State University, the legendary Virgin's Field, where she studied Russian Medical intellectuals, was to Boris the new stage of life, accompanied by a reorganization of thinking
. From inanimate objects and dead student's mother went over to the people, the sick, had to learn to understand their suffering - in short, to prepare themselves for the medical profession.
Behind the scenes were wonderful student years - 1928, 1929, 1930. Passion for surgery with Boris increasingly intensified. He never missed a single meeting of surgical circle, which were assistants Boris Milon and Joseph Moiseevich Chaikov. Together with other students participated in duty in the clinic Hertsen and even assisted him, usually at night, on the operations. I remember a Boris words of his teacher, Pyotr Aleksandrovich Gertsen, uttered after one of the most complex operations: 'That's - not the surgeon was afraid of blood, and blood should be afraid of the surgeon'.
After graduation, BV Petrovsky about one and a half years he worked as resident surgical unit in the Podolsk district hospital and head of plant health centers Podolsky Gosshveymashina (1931-1932 gg.). In 1932, Mr.. served as a junior doctor regimental tank brigade and a doctor of the hospital in Naro-Fominsk, Moscow Region.
A passionate desire to devote his life to surgery and to learn it from his mentor Peter Aleksandrovich Gertsen led Petrovsky in Moscow, to the Cancer Institute (Clinic PA Herzen), where he turned to his teacher. Petr remembered his former student and sent him to the chief assistant Alexander Ivanovich Savitsky. He received Petrovsky, along with doctors Bull, Anfilogovym, Shmelev, also returned after military service. All of them were in military tunics and trousers, boots, soldiers' overcoats, in Budyonny caps.
Since 1932. He is engaged in scientific research - a researcher at the Moscow Institute of Oncology (the first ten-year phase-led PA Herzen). Ability researcher and talent of the surgeon found fertile ground - for several years hard work Boris completed the study of important issues oncology (breast cancer), . Transfusion (technique long massive transfusions and drip blood transfusion), . shock,
The first scientific paper Petrovsky 'The Assessment of long-term results of surgical treatment of breast cancer' published in 1937. magazine 'Surgery'
. In the first cycle of scientific works are traced, and the principles of his work - special attention to actual problems of surgery, . in close connection with physiology and other basic sciences, . new search, . heightened understanding of actual problems of time,
In the 20's and 30's, blood transfusions, as a problem in the time of surgery was going through his youth, require the solution of many scientific, practical and organizational issues. Of course, the problem is also interested in the Petrovsky. In 1937, Mr.. Boris defended his thesis on the topic: 'Drip transfusion of blood and fluids krovezameschayuschih in oncological practice'. In revised form it was published as a monograph in 1948. Interest in blood transfusion BV Petrovsky retained in subsequent years, in particular, to methods of introducing blood into the body, the influence of transfusions on the body's functions.
The Institute of Oncology, BV Petrovsky became acquainted with fellow experimental laboratory, a student of Academician Bogomolets, Ekaterina Timofeeva. In 1933. they married.
In 1938. BV Petrovskii awarded the title of senior research staff member (lecturer). However peacetime ended. In 1939-1940 Boris participates as a leading surgeon and deputy chief of the army field hospital, military developments on the Karelian Isthmus.
In 1940-1941. BV Petrovsky worked as a senior researcher of the Moscow Institute of Oncology. The World War II found him at the Department of General Surgery 2 nd Moscow Medical Institute im.N.I.Pirogova an assistant professor. From the operating table clinic he went to the army.
From the first days of the war BV Petrovsky - the leading surgeon of the front, the army hospitals in the Western, Bryansk and 2 nd Baltic fronts. Thousands of soldiers and officers owe their lives to the art of the surgeon. Military labor Petrovsky recorded live awards - the Order of the Red Star (1942), two orders of World War II degree (1943, 1985.) Medals.
In the difficult years of war, he becomes not only a great experience, but also exposes its research work, ie. actively engaged in scientific activities (military surgery, surgery of injuries of the heart, lungs, pericardium, blood vessels, Transfusiology etc.). The publication includes the work Petrovsky 'Pericarditis after gunshot injury of the chest' (1943, . 1945), . 'Gunshot wounds of the blood vessels' (1944), . 'Subdiaphragmatic abscesses after gunshot wounds' (1945) and other, . reflecting the extensive experience of the surgeon in the treatment of gunshot wounds of the blood vessels and their implications,
Based on military experience, Boris also wrote a work on the injury of the pelvis, subdiaphragmatic space, published his original method of disarticulation hip surgery, etc..
This large series of studies, intensively continued in the postwar years, decorated in 1947. in his doctoral dissertation 'Surgical treatment of gunshot wounds of vessels in the front area'. In 1949, Mr.. It was published as a monograph 'Surgical treatment of vascular injuries' (M., Izd-vo AMN SSSR, 1949.)
. Rich experience of military field surgery in the treatment of vascular injuries as summarized in the 19th volume of the unique, . unequaled in the world, . publication 'Experience of Soviet Medicine in Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. " The author of the chapters and the editor of the 19 th volume was Petrovsky,
. These studies scholar influenced the development of the doctrine of gunshot wounds of the vessels, Boris developed in detail the operation vnutrimeshkovoy elimination of aneurysms and pulsating hematoma, . transvenoznogo seam and side seam of the arteries, has made unique for its time, . surgery for gunshot arteriovenous aneurysms, . particularly, . with aortic arch aneurysm, . vena, . unnamed veins,
. He developed access in the most difficult and inaccessible firearm injury and aneurysms nameless, carotid and subclavian vessels
. Personal experience of more than 800 operations for gunshot wounds of vessels launched Petrovsky in a number of major vascular surgeons, and laid the groundwork for the development of the next decade, the most important issues restorative and reconstructive vascular surgery,
. Invariably, the focus of Boris in the postwar decades, continue to be questions of military surgery, . evidenced by - his numerous reports and publications in recent years and the book 'Lectures on the martial and military urban surgery', . in which the author puts forward, . particularly, . the concept of special tactics in health care in modern warfare,
. In 1945, BV Peter starts to work the Deputy Director for Science Institute of Clinical and Experimental Surgery, AMS USSR, . begins to develop problems of Thoracic Surgery and, . especially, . esophagus - new for that time and developing sections,
Got a new wide field of activity, energetic scientist at the Institute of Surgery has developed and the first in the country (in 1946) carried out a successful operation for cancer of different parts of the esophagus with simultaneous plastic its hilar. Landmark point of the problem were the articles Petrovsky, . published in 1947: 'Success of surgical treatment of cancer of the esophagus and cardia' and 'intrapleural resection of the esophagus, . cardia and total gastrectomy with momentary ezafagogastro and ezofagoeyunoanastomozom cancer ',
Research and experience in surgery of esophageal cancer Boris summed up in 1950, Mr.. in the monograph 'Surgical treatment of cancer of the esophagus and cardia', awarded in 1953. award named after NN Burdenko, Academy of Medical Sciences.
From the Institute of Surgery, AMS USSR, he moved to the Department of General Surgery II Moscow Medical Institute, led by Professor. VP Voznesensky, where in 1948. received the title of professor.
In 1949, Mr.. new twist in the life of a scientist - BV Petrovsky was sent by the decision of the Government of the Hungarian People's Republic of. Two years (until 1951), he is the director of the department of hospital surgery and administer the 3rd Surgical Clinic, Medical Faculty, University of Budapest.
The name BV. Petrovsky linked postwar emergence of the Hungarian surgery and, especially, thoracic surgery, and blood transfusion services, trauma and oncology.
Upon returning from the Hungarian trip to Moscow in 1951. Boris was elected head of the Department of Faculty Surgery 2 MMI them. Pirogov, formerly headed by well-known surgeon NA Bogoraz. The chair BV Petrovsky worked until 1956.
In 1951, Mr.. Petrovsky first time participating in the XIV Congress of the International Society of Surgeons in Paris, which presented a report on surgery of esophageal cancer. At the same time, he participated in the Congress of Anesthesiologists, which was also made. A report on local anesthesia in thoracic surgery. In the future, Boris - the indispensable and active participant in all the congresses of MOX and other surgical forums.
Since 1953, Mr.. Petrovsky simultaneously with superintendence department is the chief surgeon and 4-th Main Directorate of the Ministry of Health of the USSR. In this responsible position he worked for 13 years.
Period 1951-1956 he. is important not only in the creative biography of Boris, but also for the further progress of surgery in the country. In these years have been developed and is famous not only in the country but also abroad operations in kardiospazme and other pathology of the chest cavity using a diaphragm flap.
In this period was marked up as self-direction, the surgery of acquired and congenital heart defects, launched Petrovsky more in Hungary. In addition to developing the operations themselves in the heart, he is actively organizes the introduction into clinical practice of endotracheal anesthesia, creates a special department for postoperative thoracic patients - the prototype of the modern intensive care department. All this has allowed to successfully carry out heart surgery.
In the postwar years, in connection with the interests of 'big surgery', began to form on anesthesiology and critical care medicine - the medical profession, which, as confirmed time, had an exceptional impact on the development of medicine in general.
These years have brought BV Petrovsky recognition of his surgical skills and scientific achievements. In 1955, Mr.. He was elected a corresponding member of Academy of Medical Sciences, and after 2 years, in 1957,. - A member of Academy of Medical Sciences. Began to form one of the largest surgical schools in Russia - School Petrovsky.
In 1956, Mr.. Petrovsky returned to work in 1 Moscow Medical Institute. Sechenov, was elected head of the Department of Hospital Surgery, which until 1947. directed his teacher PA Herzen, and the director of the hospital surgical clinic medical faculty. Boris headed the department for over 30 years, he devoted much attention to work with students, repeatedly stressing the great responsibility of educators in shaping a new generation of doctors. She became one of the most authoritative and well-known outside the country of surgical facilities. And today, while remaining a professor of the department, BV Petrovsky continues to lecture, participate in the classroom, head of the research activities of young scientists.
The main scientific direction in the years to Petrovsky has surgery. Team Clinic supported this new direction. It took a serious discussion, preparation of conditions for such large transactions, as the removal of his cancerous esophagus and creation of an artificial esophagus, operations on blood vessels, lungs, heart. It took the organization of intensive care and anesthesia and then the laboratory of artificial circulation, the use of angiography, the introduction of artificial circulation. In clinic, . where they worked, such qualified, . as E. Shahbazian, . RG Sakayan, . N. Troyan, . V. Petrov, . IZ Kozlov et al, . included new surgeons and representatives of other professions - SI Babichev, . N. Malinowski, . GM Solov'ev, . OB Milon, . EN Vantsyan, . AA Bunyatyan, . R.N,
. Lebedev, VI Shumakov, SN Efuni, VS Krylov, and others.
By 1960, Mr.. the Department staff, proven innovations, has become even more popular. It was a like an army before the onset of. And this army was able to breakthrough - in 1963. based clinics and laboratories of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences was organized by the Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Surgery (NIIKiEH) MZ RSFSR. It became possible to work successfully in large sections of reconstructive reconstructive surgery.
The range of research and the volume of activity NIIKiEH soon went beyond the actual surgery: major discoveries, inventions, intensive scientific developments occur at the junction of surgery with physics, chemistry, biology. Center of scientific and practical interest has reconstructive and restorative surgery, a large scientific potential allowed to carry out scientific development to global standards, and actively implement them in practical health.
Experience of the first decade has shown that this kind of research institution, combined with the department, provides substantial progress in all areas of work. These were the confident steps of domestic solid surgical scientific schools Petrovsky
. The main directions of scientific thought, . most important issues - is the heart and vascular surgery, . lung, . trachea and bronchi, . esophagus and stomach, . liver and biliary tract, . microsurgery, . oksigenobarohirurgiya, . rentgenoevdovaskulyarnaya Surgery, . Clinical Physiology, . transplantation and artificial organs, . development of new modern methods of anesthesia and resuscitation, . diagnostic techniques, . development and implementation of original samples of new medical technology, . surgical instruments, . sutures,
. With these same issues relate fundamental scientific works Petrovsky, reflecting his experience as a doctor, a polyvalent virtuoso surgeon. Suffice it to say that BV Petrovsky owns more than 700 works, of which about 40 monographs.
In 1960, Mr.. BV Petrovskii, AA Vishnevsky, EN Meshalkin, PA Kupriyanov for the development and introduction of new operations on the heart and large vessels were awarded the Lenin Prize. In 1961. Boris was awarded the Order of Lenin.
In addition to the glory of the outstanding scholars, practitioners and teachers, Boris has won recognition as a great organizer of public health.
In September 1965, Mr.. Petrovsky appointed to the post of Minister of Health.
For almost 16 years as a minister (until 1980) BV Petrovsky was directly involved in the development and implementation of all important documents aimed at improving people's health. The range of his activities Petrovsky was extremely broad, given the challenges faced by health authorities. This is - providing high quality medical care, . effectiveness of preventive measures, . to greater levels of health and active longevity, providing the population with all types of specialized care, the creation of large-equipped with modern facilities and staffed with highly qualified general and specialized health care facilities, expanding the functions and human health surveillance, . especially in the field of sanitary protection of the environment, convergence of levels of medical care for the urban and rural populations, further improving the health of women and children and industrial workers,
Petrovsky participated in the preparation of Government decisions on measures to further improve health develops and implements the most rational and science-based forms of bodies and health. Thus, in particular, to implement broad measures to combat illness and injuries, environmental protection, protection of motherhood and childhood, increasing the number of outpatient services, etc.. Measures aimed at improving the sanitary condition of populated areas (developed and put into action all-union hygienic norms and standards aimed at further improvement of working conditions at industrial enterprises).
BV Petrovsky made a great contribution to the course for the construction of large specialized and multidisciplinary medical and research institutions. With its active participation organized by the new scientific institutions (influenza, gastroenterology, pulmonology, transplantation of organs and tissues, eye diseases).
A major contribution to health development was the organization and construction of g. Moscow institutions of international importance: the All-Union Cancer Center, the All-Union Cardiological Center and VNIC health of mother and child, which is also carried out with the direct participation of Petrovsky
. At the initiative of Boris done extensive work on the organization, . reorganization of a number of educational institutions Profile, . new specialties, created new institutions and faculties to improve physicians in some medical institutions, . new pediatric and dental faculties,
At the initiative of Petrovsky carried great deal of work to create the domestic medical equipment, instruments, many of whom now are not equal to the best foreign samples. Fundamental importance in this regard was the resolution of a special government commission, obliging the Ministry of Industry for the needs of the Ministry of Health to develop the necessary apparatus and appliances. For the ministries, in accordance with the decision, affirm the direction of development, which ensured their specialization and coordination of research and development works. Such coordination at the government level has been implemented in the country's health first.
As Minister Boris traveled around the country, held assets of health workers, met with city and district and rural hospitals, health centers, medical. infirmary, factories honey. equipment etc..
A lot of evidence suggests that Boris enjoyed great prestige in government circles of the country. Largely due to this circumstance supported his initiatives, proposals, and policy proposals, as already mentioned, the scale taking into account the interests and needs of the country and its people. Petrovsky served many assignments at the state level and responsibility. This indicated its appreciation of his work and trust. So, Boris leading the state emergency commission to combat the epidemics of cholera, representing the country at the highest levels abroad, etc..
At the suggestion of Petrovsky, thanks to his perseverance, a large number of health practitioners, for self humane work the first time in the history of the country was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor.
Exceptional contribution was made by Boris in the development of international relations, in no small measure contributed to this recognition of the global medical community of his merit and contribution to the surgery, medicine and health.
With his direct participation have been prepared intergovernmental agreement on cooperation in the field of medicine and medical technology between the USSR and France (1969). USSR and the USA (1972)
. Boris, . participated actively in the work of the World Health Organization, . headed the delegation to the World Health Assemblies, . brought on behalf of the Government's major proposals and resolutions, . particularly, . the basic principles of national health development and the overall program of work of WHO and others,
An important milestone was the signing at the 33rd World Health Assembly Declaration on the Elimination of smallpox in the world. Representatives of States participating in the Assembly, unanimously acknowledged the contribution of our country in the successful solution of the issue (1980).
Petrovsky headed to work as president of the XXIV International Congress of Surgeons (1971, Moscow). The World Alma-Ata conference to exchange experiences, . organization of primary health care for the urban and rural populations, . organized by WHO and UNICEF (1978), . which adopted a well-known program "world health by 2000 ',
. Boris was also president and keynote speaker. The resolution of the Conference of the health system of our country was given a very high score, and the office of 'ambulance' recognized as the best in the world.
In 1955, Mr.. Petrovsky was elected Vice-Chairman and in 1965. - Chairman of the All-Union Scientific Society of Surgeons, which he led for many years. Today he is the honorary chairman of the Board of the Association of Surgeons im.N.I.Pirogova. Extremely important contribution Petrovsky as chairman of the Pirogovskaya Commission and the Council of Elders of the Presidium of Medical Sciences. He took an active part in the reorganization at the international level of the Museum-estate of NI Pirogov in Vinnitsa (Ukraine), . rebalzamirovanii body Pirogov, . two-volume edition of the 'Proceedings Pirogovski readings 1957-1987 gg. ", . systematic Pirogovski readings (the last was held in 1997),
. Finally, in 1997. completed the project of exceptional importance - a facsimile reprint of the monument of national and world science and culture, outstanding work of NI Pirogov 'Ice Anatomy'
. Wide international recognition and prestige Petrovsky reflected in his election as a member of the Presidency (1966) and honorary member (since 1979) of the International Society of Surgeons, . Vice-President of the European Society of Cardiovascular Surgeons (1966), . Honorary Doctor im.V.Gumboldta Berlin (1979), . Bratislava im.Ya.Komenetskogo (1979), . Charles (Prague), university (1972), . Honorary Doctor of Medical Faculty of the Budapest im.L.Etvesha (1979), . Krakow (1964), . Naples (1977), . Ulan Bator im.H.Choybalsana (1979), . Tartu (1990) Universities, . honorary doctorate and an honorary member of the Scientific Council of Russia Military Medical Academy (1998), . honorary member of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (1995), . Poland (1974), . Hungary (1965), . China (1993), . Serbia (1972), . Italy, . Germany Academy of Natural Scientists 'Leopoldina' (1966), . honorary professor of the St. Petersburg Medical University im.I.P.Pavlova (1998), . honorary member of the Medical Association of Russia (1994), . as well as 14 foreign surgical societies, . in t.ch,
. American College of Surgeons (1974), . Royal College of Surgeons of England (1972), . Scotland (1975) and Ireland (1963), . French Academy of Surgeons (1967), . Society of Surgeons in Bulgaria, . Poland (1964), . Cuba, . Italy (1966), . Sweden (1973), . Germany (1972), etc., . honorary chairman of the Hungarian Society of Surgeons, . honorary member of the Czechoslovak Society of Purkinje (1963), . delegate all, . starting with the sixteenth (1955), . Congress of the International Society of Surgeons,
. In 1988. BV Petrovsky, was unanimously elected an Honorary Director of the Scientific Center of Surgery, AMS USSR (now Russia Scientific Center of Surgery, RAS). He is also chairman of the Specialized Council for the Protection of doctoral theses at RNTSH RAMS.
Much time and attention BV Petrovsky pays publishing activity. In 1952, Mr.. Boris became editor of 'Surgery'. Can mention such important milestones: the chief editor of 'Great Medical Encyclopedia' - 3rd edition, . 'Malaya Medical Encyclopedia' in 10 volumes, . 'General Medical Encyclopedia' (3 volumes), . multiple editions of 'popular medical encyclopedia', . the first edition of 'Dictionary of medical terms' (3 volumes), . 'Atlas of Thoracic Surgery' in 2 volumes (1971, . 1974.), . 'Manual of Surgery' in 12 volumes (1960-1968 gg.), . and such long-term work Boris as chief editor of 'Surgery' and others,
. Himself Boris published over 500 scientific publications including 40 monographs
. Petrovsky - Hero of Socialist Labor (1968), . Laureate of Lenin (1960) and the USSR State Prize (1971), . International Prize Leonard Bernard World Health Organization (1975), . many nominal prizes of the Academy of Medical Sciences, ,
. He was awarded numerous domestic and foreign orders and medals: the Order of Lenin (1961, . 1965, . 1968, . 1978)., . October Revolution (1971), . Friendship of Peoples (1993), . the Polish Commander's Cross with the Star of the Order of Merit (1972) and 'Commander Order of Merit (1989), . Hungarian 'Merit' (1951) and 'Red Banner of Labor' (1970), . Medal of Honor 'excellent teacher of the Institute of Advanced Training of Physicians' (Hungary, . 1977), . Gold Medal 'for services to science and humanity' of the Slovak Academy of Sciences (1971) and many others,
As a teenager, Boris was engaged in tourism and mountaineering. He is fond of cinema and photography. Loves reading fiction.
Lives and works in Moscow. Address: Russia, 119874, Moscow, Abrikosov Lane., 2, Russia Scientific Center of Surgery RAMS.