Rozhkov, Mikhail Fedorovich( Balalaika Player, People's Artist of Russia.)
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Biography Rozhkov, Mikhail Fedorovich
Born August 30, 1918. village Kryukovka Lukoyanovskaya district of Nizhny Novgorod Province. Father - Fedot Fedorovich (1883 g.rozhd.). Mother - Varvara Feodorovna (1884 g.rozhd.).
Michael grew up in a large family, was the youngest of seven sons. He was still a child when his father took eldest sons and moved with them to build a railroad Turksib. Michael with his mother and brother Boris stayed in Nizhny Novgorod. The family split.
We lived very poorly. Barbara Feodorovna earned washing. To help the mother, Michael took the winter sleigh and drove passengers luggage from the station. In 1925, Mr.. Michael took the Pioneers and sent to Pionerdom, where the boys spent the whole day and came home only to sleep. The house was named Latvian revolutionary Anson, who made a lot of good for the children of Nizhny Novgorod. In Pionerdome well fed, well here was supplied military-patriotic education. There, Michael learned to swim, run, got a good physical training.
In Pionerdome time passes unnoticed. Children are very interesting to spend time in different circles: fine art, music, carpentry and worked in carpentry and print shops. There was even an amateur orchestra of folk instruments. In this orchestra Michael learned to play almost all folk instruments, that's when he first picked up the balalaika.
When Mikhail Rozhkov was 16 years old and it's time to choose a profession, his teacher and leader of the orchestra from the firm said: I want to learn from the musician and conductor.
In 1934, Mr.. Michael went to Leningrad to enter the music school im.M.P.Musorgskogo. At the entrance examinations firmly declared that plays all the instruments and it certainly should take. He was given domra - he played, gave the guitar - played. With a balalaika in the future world-renowned maestro suffered embarrassment - during a 'demonstration of mastery' broken strings. However, persistent and obviously talented young man was adopted at the preparatory course instructor School Division.
In school Mikhail Rozhkov, on the advice of friends, began with the game on chetyrehstrunnoy domra. And all went well until then, until he heard how one of the classes play the balalaika Paul Necheporenko (while also a student of school, now - People's Artist of USSR, Professor of the State Academy of Music Gnesinyh. His biography cm. on page:. Michael was fascinated by the sound of an instrument in his hands, literally sick balalaika, and the next day went to the head office, Alexander Alexandrovich Kholodilina request to transfer him to the class of balalaika. Until the end of the school year was only a few months, but Michael went to the meeting, and during those months he was the class of balalaika, the program. Engaged Rozhkov, as Necheporenko, Vladimir IOSIFOVICH Dombrowski.
In college Mikhail Rozhkov studied in five years (1934-1939 gg.), Graduating in perfectly in the third year of study began to act in the orchestra im.Andreeva. It was and earnings and excellent practice. But the singer did not. It was a difficult process of forming a musician. VI Rozhkov Dombrowski ordered to leave the band, saying that he has a great prospect, and he will be the most famous Balalaika Russia.
In 1939, MF Rozhkov arrived in Moscow at the All-Union competition of folk music to listen to its members. At the same time in the capital of the Red Banner Competition took place in the ensemble. Rozhkov was invited to appear, . and as a result, . on the orders of Defense Commissar Voroshilov, . it has been identified in the Central House of the Red Army in balalaechny Red Army Orchestra, . where he worked for 7 years, . first solo balalaika, . then - conductor,
The name of the orchestra several times changed. During the war he was called Balalaika Ensemble Kalinin Front, then - I-st Baltic Front, then - Samland Group of troops in East Prussia, at last, - the Ensemble of the Baltic Military District.
As a military band band often performed directly on the front, before the attack. What is a bunker, trench, bullets, bombs exploding shells and M. Rozhkov and his fellow musicians had to endure, as they say, 'for myself'. After the storm Rzhev received his first military medal. The war ended with the orchestra in Koenigsberg. The leaders of the ensemble were demobilized in 1945. On the orders of Marshal Bagramian Mikhail Rozhkov took command of the orchestra. In 1946, Mr.. visited Moscow.
In 1946, Mr.. Mikhail Rozhkov with Gennady Petrovich Bykov created the duo balalaika. Rehearsed wherever they could - in the basement, the attic ... When they played in the WTO 'Dance of the buffoons' Rimsky-Korsakov, they heard Michael Fabianovich Gnesin. 'You are a miracle' - he said. 'You need abroad show! " The duo played unaccompanied Russian folk songs, processing, which made the musicians themselves. Duet M. Rozhkov and G. Bykov spoke at the most prestigious venues in Moscow, wrote down the plate. But soon GP Bykov was arrested, the duo broke up.
At that time, Mikhail Rozhkov keenly felt, that he still lacks the skills, knowledge, musical horizons. In 1948, Mr.. he decided to enter the newly created department of folk instruments in the Musical Pedagogical Institute Gnesinyh.
MF Rozhkov very lucky. He worked in the classroom at Alexander Sergeyevich Ilyukhina, which did not suppress the creative freedom of the student. A. Rozhkov Ilyukhin trained in understanding that talented, but the more unique musician, such as Rozhkov, must make programs difficult to have in stock a huge repertoire.
Simultaneously with the studies lasted intensive concert activity. In their program MF Rozhkov included Russian folk songs, classics, works by contemporary composers of popular Soviet songs - all of it allowed him to fully show the maximum possible balalaika. Thus, each performance is always accompanied by then, as though accompanied now, interesting and entertaining talk about the history of instrument. Once, MF Rozhkova heard LO Utesov, was delighted, called him a 'genius balalaika'. Rock was the first musician who supported the war in Moskontsert. Thanks to him, Rozhkov was in the elite variety of the country, in the best concerts on the best sites.
Continued to find creative. Michael tried to connect the balalaika in a duet with different instruments and concluded that the perfect combination - the balalaika and guitar. Important role in the life of MF Rozhkova in this period played an encounter with a remarkable guitarist George Ivanovitch Menyaevym. In 1958, Mr.. they have created, in essence, the first professional duet of balalaika and guitar and spent 15 years together, performed throughout the Soviet Union, were in many foreign countries - almost all European countries, in Africa, twice in Japan, in America ...
After the death of GI Menyaeva within 6 years Mikhail Rozhkov toured with pianist Svetlana Sorokina. After fifteen years, again played with a guitarist - Yuri Chernov.
No speeches MF Rozhkova in those years was unthinkable not one of the major concerts in Moscow. Concerts in those years were based strictly on genres: the word art, sport and acrobatic or circus, choreography, vocals, instruments, pop and movie room. The choreography was represented by: Ulanova, Lepeshinskaya, Struchkov, Lapauri; conversational genre: Tsarev, kindly, Nabatov, Ktorov, Il'inskii, Mironova, Menaker, operetta: Yaron, Savitskaya, Volodin. Tool genre represented, as a rule, Alexander Tsfasman - piano (in the first compartment) and Mikhail Rozhkov - balalaika (in the second half).
Rozhkov constantly invited to the Performance in the United States, Italy, France, Poland, Spain and many other countries. When the Ambassador of Chile in the USSR was A. Pinochet, an indispensable party to the concerts was Mikhail Rozhkov. Admirer of his work was, and Juan Antonio Samaranch, who during his stay in the USSR as the Ambassador of Spain never missed an opportunity to be invited to speak in Rozhkova Poslstve concert. Rozhkov admired Jean Marais, Eduardo de Filippo, Marcel Marceau, Anna Herman and other stars of world art. Appreciated his skill and legendary domestic Actors: Lyubov Orlova, Boris Andreyev, Pyotr Glebov, and many others
. Being crowned a virtuoso, . MF Rozhkov continued to grasp the secrets of your favorite tool, . not hesitate to learn to play the balalaika fraction - Leonid Vladimirov, . balalaika in an orchestra ensemble 'Berezka', . y Feoktistova - vibrate vibrato, . y Necheporenko - vibrato for stand, . y Blinova - thick filling tremolo, . learned the secrets of the game at Troyanovsky, . Petrova, . Assumption, . Ulyanovsk,
. Great importance in the professional education of a musician and gave the art of conducting. Rozhkov came to rehearsals of symphony orchestras and watched the work of Mravinsky, Musina, Fritz Stiedry. Conductor of the Republican State Russian folk ensemble 'Russia' VF Gridin said that 'if MF Rozhkov deal with conducting, he would have an outstanding conductor, but he remained a knight balalaika'.
Creativity MF Rozhkova devoted numerous publications in national and foreign press. In 1998. was his dream come true - printed repertoire of works for balalaika and guitar accompaniment - an invaluable textbook for future generations of young Balalaika. Total was published three collections from the repertoire of the musician.
Balalaika M. Rozhkov can be heard in more than fifty films, among them 'Vasily Andreev', 'War and Peace', 'Volga Flows',' The Dawns Here Are Quiet ...', 'Straight Story' and other.
Michael F. Rozhkov - People's Artist of Russia, winner of I All-Russia competition of masters of pop art. In 1998. he was awarded the title of Professor Faculty of Humanities MATI im.K.E.Tsiolkovskogo, and in his 80-year anniversary, he was awarded the Order of Merit to the Fatherland 'III degree.
Leisure time Michael F. gave the book and sports. As a young man keen on rowing, canoeing. Involved in sport and to this day, highlights those species that help to maintain a professional form, for balalaika playing bent, with clamped chest. He loves biking, skiing, swimming, badminton, walking.
Lives and works in Moscow.
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Photos of Rozhkov, Mikhail Fedorovich